Novel Therapeutic Approach Targeting The Hif-Hre System In The Kidney
Recent studies emphasize the role of chronic hypoxia in the tubulointerstitium as a final common pathway to end-stage renal disease. Therefore, therapeutic approaches which target the chronic hypoxia should prove effective against a broad range of renal diseases.
Many of hypoxia-triggered protective mechanisms are hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-dependent. Although HIF-1α and HIF-2α share both structural and functional similarity, they have different localization and can contribute in a non-redundant manner. While gene transfer of constitutively active HIF has been shown effective, pharmacological approaches to activate HIF are more desirable. Oxygen-dependent activation of prolyl hydroxylases (PHD) regulates the amount of HIF by degradation of this transcription factor. Therefore, PHD inhibitors have been the focus of recent studies on novel strategies to stabilize HIF. Cobalt is one of the inhibitors of PHD, and stimulation of HIF with cobalt is effective in a variety of kidney disease models. Furthermore, crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human prolyl hydroxylase 2 have been clarified recently. The structure aids in the design of PHD selective inhibitors for the treatment of hypoxic tissue injury.
Current advance has elucidated the detailed mechanism of hypoxia-induced transcription, giving hope for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against hypoxia.
KeywordsChronic Hypoxia Critical Limb Ischemia Prolyl Hydroxylase Final Common Pathway Tubulointerstitial Injury
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