The Role of the Endangered Species Act in Midwest Wolf Recovery

  • Ronald L. Refsnider

20.1 Introduction

In its 1978 Tellico Dam Snail Darter ruling, the US Supreme Court called the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 (available at “the most comprehensive legislation for the preservation of endangered species ever enacted by any nation.” For those who have been involved in its implementation for a decade or more, this statement certainly rings true. However, we are also well aware of its weaknesses, inconsistencies, the difficulty with which it can be applied to complex biological situations, and, above all, its openness to citizen involvement and litigation. In this chapter, I examine the listing, recovery, and delisting of the gray wolf (Canis lupus), which serves as an informative case history demonstrating many aspects of the ESA.

20.2 The Endangered Species Act – An Overview

The ESA directs the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Commerce (delegated to the US Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS] and National...


Recovery Plan Gray Wolf Wolf Population Endangered Status Wolf Management 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.US Fish and Wildlife ServiceFederal BuildingFort SnellingUSA

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