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Long-term Research on Wolves in the Superior National Forest

  • L. David Mech
Chapter

2.1 Background

The seeds for the blossoming of the wolf (Canis lupus) population throughout the upper Midwest were embodied in a long line of wolves that had persisted in the central part of the Superior National Forest (SNF) of northeastern Minnesota, probably since the retreat of the last glaciers. This line of wolves had withstood not only the various natural environmental factors that had shaped them through their evolution but also the logging, fires, market hunting of prey animals, and even the bounties, aerial hunting, and poisoning that had exterminated their ancestors and their dispersed offspring only a few wolf pack territories away in more accessible areas. The dense and extensive stretch of wild land that is now labeled the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness had proven too formidable a barrier even for the foes of the wolf who had strived to eliminate the animal and had succeeded everywhere else in the contiguous 48 states of the United States. The wolves of the SNF...

Keywords

Snow Depth Wolf Population Radio Pack Census Area Wolf Pack 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the US Department of the Interior during its entirety through the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Biological Survey, and the US Geological Survey and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Midcontinent Wildlife Research Center, and Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, as well as by the US Forest Service through North Central Forest Experiment Station (now North Central Research Station) and the SNF. Private funding sources included the New York Zoological Society, the World Wildlife Fund, the Mardag Foundation, the Special Projects Foundation of the Big Game Club, Wallace Dayton, and Valerie Gates. I especially thank M. E. Nelson, J. Renneberg, and T. Wallace as well as numerous volunteers and graduate students who assisted with the fieldwork. S. Barber-Meyer and D. J. Demma critiqued an early draft of the manuscript and offered helpful suggestions for improvement.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.US Geological SurveyUniversity of MinnesotaUSA

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