Factors Influencing Homesite Selection by Gray Wolves in Northwestern Wisconsin and East-Central Minnesota

  • David E. Unger
  • Paul W. Keenlance
  • Bruce E. Kohn
  • Eric M. Anderson


One of the most critical aspects of population dynamics in any animal species is the birth and successful rearing of young. Therefore, understanding the characteristics of areas where wolves give birth and rear pups (den and rendezvous sites) is important for proper management. In the Great Lakes region, the gray wolf has made a remarkable recovery, from a small remnant population in northeastern Minnesota to the recolonization of most of northern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. In this chapter, we review relevant literature on wolf dens and rendezvous sites and attempt to determine those factors most critical in the selection of homesites in the upper Great Lakes region.


Sugar Maple Great Lake Region Random Site Gray Wolf Wolf Population 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Funding and support was provided by the Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point (UWSP), Michigan State University Department of Fish and Wildlife (MSU), and Milwaukee Zoological Society. Additional assistance was provided by the Wisconsin Bureau of Land Management, Wildlife Science Center, Douglas County Forestry, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and Mosinee Paper Company. We thank from WDNR, A. Wydeven, R. Shultz, H. Reese, F. Krueger, D. Kallenbach, and P. Miller, as well as K. Millenbah (MSU), E. Merrill (UWSP), K. Rice (UWSP), Alexa Spivey (volunteer), and Michelle Lassige (volunteer).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • David E. Unger
    • 1
  • Paul W. Keenlance
    • 2
  • Bruce E. Kohn
    • 3
  • Eric M. Anderson
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Natural SciencesAlderson Broaddus CollegeUSA
  2. 2.Biology DepartmentGrand Valley State UniversityUSA
  3. 3.Wisconsin Department of Natural ResourcesUSA
  4. 4.College of Natural ResourcesUniversity of Wisconsin Stevens Point

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