Advertisement

Prey of Wolves in the Great Lakes Region

  • Glenn D. DelGiudice
  • Keith R. McCaffery
  • Dean E. BeyerJr
  • Michael E Nelson
Chapter

10.1 Introduction

Wolves (Canis lupus) were abundant in the Great Lakes region just prior to early European settlement (1800–1850). The subsequent extirpation of wolves and most of their large prey from much of this region is just one of the many threats humans have posed to North American wildlife by exploitation and indifference. To understand and learn from the ongoing recovery of wolves in the Great Lakes region (for our purposes here, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan) and the historic declining trend that preceded it (Erb and DonCarlos this volume; Wydeven et al. this volume; Beyer et al. this volume) requires consideration of their primary prey, both historically and today. Because the nutrition afforded by food is essential to survival, reproductive success, and population persistence, both for wild animals and humans, it is not difficult to comprehend how during those early times, and still today for some, ungulate prey species are often at the center of the conflict between...

Keywords

Great Lake Region Deer Population Winter Severity Deep Snow Snowshoe Hare 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank P. R. Krausman and M. S. Lenarz for their critical reviews of an early draft of this chapter and their constructive comments. We also appreciate the technical assistance of B. A. Sampson in developing the prey distribution figure. Finally, we would like to acknowledge the many researchers and managers whose efforts over the decades in the Great Lakes region contributed to our current understanding of wolves and their prey and their increasingly sound management.

References

  1. Arzigian, C. M., and Stevenson, K. P. 2003. Minnesota’s Indian mounds and burial sites: a synthesis of prehistoric and early historic archaeological data. Publication no. 1. St. Paul: The Minnesota Office of the State Archaeologist.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, R. H. 1983. Michigan mammals. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Ballard, W. B., Ayres, L. A., Krausman, P. R., Reed, D. J., and Fancy, S. G. 1997. Ecology of wolves in relation to a migratory caribou herd in northwest Alaska. Wildlife Monographs 135:1–47.Google Scholar
  4. Barlett, I. H. 1938. Whitetails, presenting Michigan’s deer problem. Lansing: Michigan Department of Conservation Game Division. 64pp.Google Scholar
  5. Bergerud, A. T. 1974. The decline of caribou in North America following settlement. Journal of Wildlife Management 38:757–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergerud, A. T. 1978. Caribou. In Big game of North America: Ecology and management, eds. J. L. Schmidt and D. L. Gilbert, pp. 83–101. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books.Google Scholar
  7. Bergerud, A. T., and Elliott, J. P. 1998. Wolf predation in a multiple-ungulate system in northern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:1551–1569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bergerud, A. T., and Mercer, W. E. 1989. Caribou introductions in eastern North America. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17:111–120.Google Scholar
  9. Bersing, O. S. 1966. A century of Wisconsin deer. Madison: Wisconsin Conservation Department. 272pp.Google Scholar
  10. Bohley, L. 1964. The great Hinkley hunt. Ohio Conservation Bulletin 18:11, 31–32.Google Scholar
  11. Carstensen Powell, M., and DelGiudice, G. D. 2005. Birth, morphological, and blood characteristics of free-ranging white-tailed deer neonates. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41:171–183.Google Scholar
  12. Carstensen, M., DelGiudice, G. D., Sampson, B. A., and Kuehn, D. W. 2009. Understanding survival, birth characteristics, and cause-specific mortality of northern white-tailed deer neonates. Journal of Wildlife Management 73: In Press.Google Scholar
  13. Caton, J. D. 1877. The antelope and deer and America. New York: Forest and Stream Publication Company.Google Scholar
  14. Cochrane, J. F. 1996. Woodland caribou restoration at Isle Royale National Park. United States National Park Service Technical Report No. 96-03. 85pp. Google Scholar
  15. Creed, W. A., Haberland, F., Kohn, B. E., and McCaffery, K. R. 1984. Harvest management: the Wisconsin experience. In White-tailed deer: ecology and management, ed. L. K. Halls, pp. 243–260. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books.Google Scholar
  16. Dahlberg, B. L., and Guettinger, R. C. 1956. The white-tailed deer in Wisconsin. Madison: Wisconsin Conservation Department. 282pp.Google Scholar
  17. Dale, B. W., Adams, L. G., and Bowyer, R. T. 1994. Functional response of wolves preying on barren-ground caribou in a multiple prey ecosystem. Journal of Animal Ecology 63:644–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DelGiudice, G. D. 1998. Surplus killing of white-tailed deer by wolves in northcentral Minnesota. Journal of Mammalogy 79:227–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DelGiudice, G. D., Fieberg, J., Riggs, M. R., Carstensen Powell, M., and Pan, W. 2006. A long-term age-specific survival analysis of female white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:1556–1568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DelGiudice, G. D., Lenarz, M. S., and Carstensen Powell, M. 2007. Age-specific fertility and fecundity in northern free-ranging white-tailed deer: evidence for reproductive senescence? Journal of Mammalogy 88:427–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DelGiudice, G. D., Riggs, M. R., Joly, P., and Pan, W. 2002. Winter severity, survival, and cause-specific mortality of white-tailed deer in north-central Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Management 66:698–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Doepker, R. V., Beyer, D. E., Jr., and Donovan, M. 1995. Deer population trends in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. Michigan Department of Natural Resources Wildlife Division Report No. 3254. Lansing. 11pp.Google Scholar
  23. Eberhardt, L. L. 1997. Is wolf predation ratio-dependent? Canadian Journal of Zoology 75:1940–1944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Erickson, A. W., Gunvalson, V. E., Stenlund, M. H., Burcalow, D. W., and Blankenship, L. H. 1961. The white-tailed deer of Minnesota. St. Paul: Minnesota Department of Conservation Technical Bulletin 5. 64pp.Google Scholar
  25. Fashingbauer, B. A. 1965a. The elk in Minnesota. In Big game in Minnesota, ed. J. B. Moyle, pp. 99–132. St. Paul: Minnesota Department of Conservation.Google Scholar
  26. Fashingbauer, B. A. 1965b. The bison in Minnesota. In Big game in Minnesota, ed. J. B. Moyle, pp. 167–173. St. Paul: Minnesota Department of Conservation.Google Scholar
  27. Fashingbauer, B. A. 1965c. The caribou in Minnesota. In Big game in Minnesota, ed. J. B. Moyle, pp. 133–166. St. Paul: Minnesota Department of Conservation.Google Scholar
  28. Fashingbauer, B. A. 1965d. The mule deer in Minnesota. In Big game in Minnesota, ed. J. B. Moyle, pp. 49–56. St. Paul: Minnesota Department of Conservation.Google Scholar
  29. Fashingbauer, B. A. 1965e. The pronghorn antelope in Minnesota. In Big game in Minnesota, ed. J. B. Moyle, pp. 175–178. St. Paul: Minnesota Department of Conservation.Google Scholar
  30. Floyd, T. J., Mech, L. D., and Jordan, P. A. 1978. Relating wolf scat content to prey consumed. Journal of Wildlife Management 42:528–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fritts, S. H., and Mech, L. D. 1981. Dynamics, movements, and feeding ecology of a newly protected wolf population in northwestern Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 80: 1–79.Google Scholar
  32. Fuller, T. K. 1989. Population dynamics of wolves in north-central Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 105:1–41.Google Scholar
  33. Fuller, T. K. 1990. Dynamics of a declining white-tailed deer population in north-central Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 110: 1–37.Google Scholar
  34. Fuller, T. K., Berg, W. E., Radde, G. L., Lenarz, M. S., and Joselyn, G. B. 1992. A history and current estimate of wolf distribution and numbers in Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20:42–55.Google Scholar
  35. Gilbert, F. F. 1966. Aging white-tailed deer by annuli in the cementum of the first incisor. Journal of Wildlife Management 30:200–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Grund, M. D., Cornicelli, L., and Osborn, R. G. 2004. History of Minnesota deer hunting and management. Internal report. St. Paul: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 27pp.Google Scholar
  37. Hall, E. R., and Kelson, K. R. 1959. The mammals of North America. Volume 2. New York: Ronald Press Company.Google Scholar
  38. Hannes, S. M. 1994. The faunal analysis of the Horseshoe Bay Site: a subsistence study of a nineteenth century fur trading post. M.S. Thesis, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. 153pp.Google Scholar
  39. Hoskinson, R. L., and Mech, L. D. 1976. White-tailed deer migration and its role in wolf predation. Journal of Wildlife Management 40:429–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Huntzinger, B. A. 2006. Sources of variation in wolf kill rates of white-tailed deer during winter in the Upper Peninsula, Michigan. MS Thesis, Michigan Technological University, Houghton.Google Scholar
  41. Idstrom, J. M. 1965. The moose in Minnesota. In Big game in Minnesota, ed. J. B. Moyle, pp. 57–98. St. Paul: Minnesota Department of Conservation.Google Scholar
  42. Jackson, H. T. 1961. Mammals of Wisconsin. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  43. Karns, P. D. 1997. Population distribution, density and trends. In Ecology and management of the North American moose, eds. A. W. Franzmann and C. C. Schwartz, pp. 125–139. Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  44. Karns, P. D., Haswell, H., Gilbert, F. F., and Patton, A. E. 1974. Moose management in the coniferous-deciduous ecotone of North America. Nat. Can. (Que.) 101:643–656.Google Scholar
  45. Krefting, L. W. 1974. Moose distribution and habitat selection in North America. Nat. Can. (Que.) 101:81–100.Google Scholar
  46. Kunkel, K. E., and Mech, L. D. 1994. Wolf and bear predation on white-tailed deer fawns in northeastern Minnesota. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:1557–1565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kunkel, K. E., Ruth, T. K., Pletcher, D. H., and Hornocker, M. G. 1999. Winter prey selection by wolves and cougars in and near Glacier National Park, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management 63:901–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Langenau, E. E., Jr. 1994. 100 years of deer management in Michigan. Wildlife Division Report No. 3213. Lansing: Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 15pp.Google Scholar
  49. Lenarz, M. S. 2003. White-tailed deer of Minnesota’s forested zone: harvest, population trends, and modeling. St. Paul: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  50. Le Vasseur, A. K. 2000. 10,000 years in the headwaters: archaeology on the Chippewa National Forest. The Minnesota Archaeologist 59:11–21.Google Scholar
  51. Lewis, T. L., and Rongstad, O. J. 1998. Effects of supplemental feeding on white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, migration and survival in northern Wisconsin. Canadian Field-Naturalist 112:75–81.Google Scholar
  52. Lizotte, T. E. 1998. Productivity, survivorship, and winter feeding ecology of an experimentally reintroduced elk herd in northern Wisconsin. MS Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.Google Scholar
  53. Ludwig, J., and T. Isley. 1983. Minnesota’s rich deer and deer hunting history. In Minnesota deer classic record book, ed. M. LaBarbara, pp. 9–21. Minneapolis: Minnesota Wildlife Heritage Foundation.Google Scholar
  54. Lukens, P. W., Jr. 1973. The vertebrate fauna from Pike Bay Mound, Smith Mound 4, and McKinstry Mound. In The laurel culture in Minnesota, ed. J. B. Stoltman, pp. 37–45. Minneapolis: Minnesota Historical Society.Google Scholar
  55. Mandernack, B. A. 1983. Food habits of Wisconsin wolves. MS Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire.Google Scholar
  56. McCabe, R. E. 1982. Elk and Indians: historical values and perspectives. In Elk of North America: ecology and management, eds. J. W. Thomas, and D. E. Toweill, pp. 61–123. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books.Google Scholar
  57. McCabe, R. E., and T. R. McCabe. 1984. Of slings and arrows: an historical retrospection. In White-tailed deer: ecology and management, ed. L. W. Hall, pp. 19–72. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books.Google Scholar
  58. McCaffery, K. R. 1995. History of deer populations in northern Wisconsin. In Hemlock ecology and management: proceedings of a regional conference on ecology and management of eastern hemlock, eds. G. Mroz and J. Martin, pp. 109–114. Houghton: Michigan Technological University.Google Scholar
  59. McCaffery, K. R. Ashbrenner, J. E., and Rolley, R. E. 1998. Deer reproduction in Wisconsin. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. 86:249–261.Google Scholar
  60. McCown, W. ed. 1994. Wisconsin’s deer management program: the issues involved in decision-making. Publication RS-911–94. Madison: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 31pp.Google Scholar
  61. McNeil, R. J. 1962. Population dynamics and economic impact of deer in southern Michigan. Game Division Report No. 2395. Lansing: Michigan Department of Conservation. 143pp.Google Scholar
  62. Mech, L. D. 1966. The wolves of Isle Royale. Washington, D. C.: U. S. National Park Service Fauna Series No. 7.Google Scholar
  63. Mech, L. D. 1970. The wolf: the ecology and behavior of an endangered species. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  64. Mech, L. D., and Frenzel, L. D., Jr. 1971. An analysis of the age, sex, and condition of deer killed by wolves in northeastern Minnesota. In Ecological studies of the timber wolf in northeastern Minnesota, eds. L. D. Mech and L. D. Frenzel, pp. 35–51. St. Paul, Minnesota: U. S. Forest Service Research Paper NC-52.Google Scholar
  65. Mech, L. D., Frenzel, L. D., Jr., and Karns, P. D. 1971. The effect of snow conditions on the vulnerability of white-tailed deer to wolf predation. In Ecological studies of the timber wolf in northeastern Minnesota, eds. L. D. Mech and L. D. Frenzel, pp. 51–59. St. Paul, Minnesota: U. S. Forest Service Research Paper NC-52.Google Scholar
  66. Mech, L. D., and Peterson, R. O. 2003. Wolf-prey relations. In Wolves: behavior, ecology, and conservation, eds. L. D. Mech and L. Boitani, pp. 131–160. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  67. Moran, R. J. 1973. The Rocky Mountain elk in Michigan. Wildlife Division of Research and Development Report no. 267. East Lansing: Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 93pp.Google Scholar
  68. Mulholland, S. C. 2000. The Arrowhead since the glaciers: the prehistory of northeastern Minnesota. The Minnesota Archaeologist 59:1–10.Google Scholar
  69. Murie, O. J. 1951. The Elk of North America. Harrisburg: Stackpole Company.Google Scholar
  70. Murray, D. L., Cox, E. W., Ballard, W. B., Whitlaw, H. A., Lenarz, M. S., Custer, T. W., Barnett, T., and Fuller, T. K. 2006. Pathogens, nutritional deficiency, and climate influences on a declining moose population. Wildlife Monographs 166:1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nelson, M. E., and Mech, L. D. 1986a. Mortality of white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Management 50:691–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nelson, M. E., and Mech, L. D. 1986b. Relationship between snow depth and gray wolf predation on white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 50:471–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nelson, M. E., and Mech, L. D. 1990. Weights, productivity, and mortality of old white-tailed deer. Journal of Mammalogy 71:689–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nelson, M. E., and Mech, L. D. 1991. Wolf predation risk associated with white-tailed deer movements. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69:2696–2699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nelson, M. E., and Mech, L. D. 2006. A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem. American Midland Naturalist 155:373–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. O’Gara, B. W., and Dundas, R. G. 2002. Distribution: past and present. In North American elk: ecology and management, eds. D. E. Toweill and J. W. Thomas, pp. 67–119. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  77. Ozoga, J. J. 1969. Some longevity records for female white-tailed deer in northern Michigan. Journal of Wildlife Management 33:1027–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Peterson, R. L. 1955. North American moose. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  79. Peterson, R. O., and Ciucci, P. 2003. The wolf as a carnivore. In Wolves: behavior, ecology, and conservation, eds. L. D. Mech and L. Boitani, pp. 104–130. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  80. Peterson, R. O., Thomas, N. J., Thurber, J. M., Vucetich, J. A., and Waite, T. A. 1998. Population limitation and the wolves of Isle Royale. Journal of Mammalogy 79:828–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Petraborg, W. H., and Burcalow, D. W. 1965. The white-tailed deer in Minnesota. In Big game in Minnesota, ed. J. B. Moyle, pp. 11–48. St. Paul: Minnesota Department of Conservation.Google Scholar
  82. Pike, Z. M. 1895. The expeditions of Zebulon Pike to headwaters of the Mississippi River, through Louisiana Territory, and in New Spain, during the years 1805–6–7. New York: F. P. Harper.Google Scholar
  83. Pimlott, D. H. 1967. Wolf predation and ungulate populations. American Zoology 7:267–278.Google Scholar
  84. Reeves, H. M., and McCabe, R. E. 1997. Of moose and man. In Ecology and management of the North American moose, eds. A. W. Franzmann, and C. C. Schwartz, pp. 1–75. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  85. Schoolcraft, H. R. (1834). 1858. Schoolcraft’s expedition to Lake Itasca: the discovery of the source of the Mississippi, ed. P. P. Mason. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Schorger, A. W. 1942. Extinct and endangered mammals and birds of the Upper Great Lakes Region. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 34:23–44.Google Scholar
  87. Schorger, A. W. 1953. The white-tailed deer in early Wisconsin. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters. 42:197–247.Google Scholar
  88. Schorger, A. W. 1954. The elk in early Wisconsin. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Science and Arts, Letters 43:5–23.Google Scholar
  89. Skinner, M. F., and Kaisen, O. C. 1947. The fossil Bison of Alaska and preliminary revision of the genus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 89:155–163.Google Scholar
  90. Stowell, L. R., and McKay, M. 2006. Eleven years of elk mortality characteristics for Wisconsin elk restoration project and their management implications. In 11th Annual Eastern Elk Workshop. Higgins Lake: Michigan Department of Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  91. Stowell, L. R., McKay, M., and Jonas, K. W. 2007. Elk considerations regarding trail use in the Great Divide District of the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest. Hayward, Wisconsin: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Report to the United States Forest Service. 31pp.Google Scholar
  92. Swanson, E. B. 1940. The use and conservation of Minnesota game, 1850–1900. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, St. Paul.Google Scholar
  93. Theberge, J. B., Oosenbrug, S. M., and Pimlott, D. H. 1978. Site and seasonal variation in foods of wolves, Algonquin Park, Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist 92:91–94.Google Scholar
  94. Thiel, R. P. 1993. The timber wolf in Wisconsin: the death and life of a majestic predator. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  95. Thompson, D. Q. 1952. Travel, range, and food habits of timber wolves in Wisconsin. Journal of Mammalogy 33:429–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Valppu, S. H., and Rapp, G. 2000. Paleoenthnobotanical context and dating of the Laurel use of wild rice: the Big Rice site. The Minnesota Archaeologist 59:81–87.Google Scholar
  97. Van Ballenberghe, V. A. 1987. Effects of predation on moose numbers: a review of recent North American studies. Swedish Wildlife Research 1 (Supplement):431–460.Google Scholar
  98. Van Ballenberghe, V., Erickson, A. W., and Byman, D. 1975. Ecology of the timber wolf in northeastern Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 43: 1–44.Google Scholar
  99. Van Deelen, T. R., Campa, H., III, Hamady, M., and Haufler, J. B. 1996. Longevity of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, does in Michigan. Canadian Field-Naturalist 110:630–633.Google Scholar
  100. Van Deelen, T. R., Campa, H., III, Haufler, J. B., and Thompson, P. D. 1997. Mortality patterns of white-tailed deer in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. Journal of Wildlife Management 61:903–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Verme, L. J. 1984. Some background on moose in Upper Michigan. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife Division Report No. 2973. 6pp. Google Scholar
  102. Walsh, D. P. 2007. Population estimation and fixed kernel analyses of elk in Michigan. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing.Google Scholar
  103. Weaver, J. L. 1994. Ecology of wolf predation amidst high ungulate diversity in Jasper National Park, Alberta. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Montana, Missoula.Google Scholar
  104. Wood, N. A., and Dice, L. R. 1923. Records of the distribution of Michigan mammals. Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 3:425–469.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Glenn D. DelGiudice
    • 1
  • Keith R. McCaffery
    • 2
  • Dean E. BeyerJr
    • 3
  • Michael E Nelson
    • 4
  1. 1.Minnesota Department of Natural ResourcesUSA
  2. 2.Wisconsin Department of Natural ResourcesUSA
  3. 3.Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Northern Michigan UniversityDepartment of Geography New Science Facility
  4. 4.USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research CenterKawishiwi Field LaboratoryUSA

Personalised recommendations