Advertisement

Comprehensive Management of Patients with Traumatic Aortic Injury

  • Charles E. Smith
  • Donn Marciniak
Chapter

Abstract

Thoracic aortic trauma frequently occurs in the setting of chest trauma. As such, victims of aortic trauma may have multiple life-threatening thoracic injuries involving the chest wall, trachea, bronchus, lungs, pleura, heart, diaphragm, esophagus, and great vessels (Table 16.1).

Keywords

Right Ventricular Epidural Analgesia Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Pulse Pressure Variation Endovascular Repair 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Besson A, Saegesser F. Color Atlas of Chest Trauma and Associated Injuries. Oradell: Medical Economics Books; 1983.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Duwayri Y, Abbas J, Cerilli G, Chan E, Nazzal M. Outcome after thoracic aortic injury: experience in a level-1 trauma center. Ann Vasc Surg. 2008;22(3):309–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Richens D, Kotidis K, Neale M, Oakley C, Fails A. Rupture of aorta following road traffic accidents in the United Kingdom 1992–1999: the results of the co-operative crash injury study. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2002;23:143–148.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fabian TC, Richardson JD, Croce M, et al. Prospective study of blunt injury: multicenter trial of the American Association for surgery of Trauma. J Trauma. 1997;42:374–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Parmley LF, Mattingly TW, Manion WC, et al. Nonpenetrating traumatic injury of the aorta. Circulation. 1958;17:1086–1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Duan Y, Smith CE, Como JJ. Anesthesia for major cardiothoracic trauma. In: Wilson WC, Grande CM, Hoyt DB, eds. Trauma: Resuscitation, Anesthesia, and Critical Care. New York: Informa Healthcare USA, Inc; 2007.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schmoker JD, Lee CH, Taylor RG, et al. A novel model of blunt thoracic aortic injury: a mechanism confirmed? J Trauma. 2008;64(4):923–931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ben-Menachem Y. Rupture of the thoracic aorta by broad side impacts in road traffic and other collisions: further angiographic observations and preliminary autopsy findings. J Trauma. 1993;35:363–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kodali S, Jamieson WRE, Leia-Stephens M, Miyagishima RT, Janusz MT, Tyers GFO. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta: A 20-year review: 1969–1989. Circulation. 1991;84(Suppl III):III40–III46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hirose H, Moore E. Delayed presentation and rupture of a posttraumatic innominate artery aneurysm: case report and review of the literature. J Trauma. 1997;42:1187–1195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Malm JR, Deterling RH. Traumatic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta simulating coarctation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1960;40:271–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bickell WH, Wall MJ, Pepe PE, et al. Immediate versus delayed fluid resuscitation for hypotensive patients with penetrating torso injuries. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:1105–1109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mattox KL, Bickell WH, Pepe PE. Prospective, randomized evaluation of antishock MAST in post traumatic hypotension. J Trauma. 1986;26:779–786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma. Advanced Trauma Life Support for Doctors, Student Course Manual. 8th ed. Chicago: American College of Surgeons; 2008.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kouchoukos NT, Blackstone EH, Doty DB, Hanley FL, Karp RB. Acute traumatic aortic dissection. In: Kirklin JW, Barrat B, eds. Cardiac Surgery. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1986.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eddy CA, Rush VW, Marchioro T, Ashbaugh D, Verrier ED, Dillard D. Treatment of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta. Arch Surg. 1990;125:1351–1355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wall MJ, Storey JH, Mattox KL. Indications for thoracotomy. In: Mattox KL, Feliciano DV, Moore EE, eds. Trauma. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2000:473–482.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aydin NB, Moon MC, Gill I. Cardiac and great vessel trauma. In: Smith CE, ed. Trauma Anesthesia. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008:260–278.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mirvis SE, Bidwell JK, Buddemeyer EU, et al. Value of chest radiography in excluding traumatic aortic rupture. Radiology. 1987;163:487–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mirvis SE, Shanmuganathan K, Buell J, et al. Use of spiral computed tomography for the assessment of blunt trauma patients with potential aortic injury. J Trauma. 1998;45:922–930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Downing SW, Sperling JS, Mirvis SE, et al. Experience with spiral computed tomography as the sole diagnostic method for traumatic aortic rupture. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;72:495–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Demetriades D, Velmahos GC, Scalea TM, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of blunt thoracic aortic injuries: changing perspectives. J Trauma. 2008;64(6):1415–1418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    La Berge JM, Jeffrey RB. Aortic lacerations: fatal complications of thoracic aortography. Radiology. 1987;165:367–369.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kram HB, Wohlmuth DA, Appel PL, Shoemaker WC. Clinical and radiographic indications for aortography in blunt chest trauma. J Vasc Surg. 1987;6:168–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cohn SM, Burns GA, Jaffe C, Milner KA. Exclusion of aortic tear in the unstable trauma patient: the utility of transesophageal echocardiography. J Trauma. 1995;39:1087–1090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ben-Menachem Y. Assessment of blunt aortic-­brachiocephalic trauma: should angiography be ­supplanted by transesophageal echocardiography? J Trauma. 1997;42:969–972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goarin JP, Cluzel P, Gosgnach M, et al. Evaluation of Transesophageal echocardiography for diagnosis of traumatic aortic injury. Anesthesiology. 2000;93:1373–1377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Smith MD, Cassidy M, Souther S, et al. Transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of traumatic rupture of the aorta. N Engl J Med. 1995;332:356–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vignon P, Boncoeur MP, Francois B, et al. Comparison of multiplane transesophageal echocardiography and contrast-enhanced helical CT in the diagnosis of blunt traumatic cardiovascular injuries. Anesthesiology. 2001;94:615–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fattori R, Celletti F, Bertaccini P, et al. Delayed surgery of traumatic aortic rupture; role of magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation. 1996;94:2865–2870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Langanay T, De Latour B, Leguerrier A. Surgical treatment of an acute isthmus traumatic rupture. In: Rousseau H, Verhoye JP, Heautot JF, eds. Thoracic Aortic Diseases. 1st ed. Berlin: Springer; 2006:319–329.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Peltz M, Douglass DS, Meyer DM, et al. Hypothermic circulatory arrest for repair of injuries of the thoracic aorta and great vessels. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2006;5(5):560–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Johnston RH Jr, Wall MJ, Mattox KL. Innominate artery trauma: a thirty year experience. J Vasc Surg. 1993;17:134–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Graham JM, Feliciano DV, Mattox KL, Beall AC Jr. Innominate vascular injury. J Trauma. 1982;22:647–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Von Opell UO, De Groot MK, Zilla P. Traumatic aortic rupture: twenty-year meta analysis of mortality and risk of paraplegia. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;58:585–593.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jahromi AS, Safar HA, Doobay B, Clina CS. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta: cohort study and systematic review. J Vasc Surg. 2001;34:1029–1034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gleason TG, Benjamin LC. Conventional open repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms. Perspect Vasc Surg Endovasc Ther. 2007;19:110–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kahn RA, Stone ME, Moskowitz DM. Anesthetic consideration for descending thoracic aortic aneurysm repair. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2007;11(3):205–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Whitson BA, Nath DS, Knudtson JR, McGonigal MD, Shumway SJ. Is distal aortic perfusion in traumatic thoracic aortic injuries necessary to avoid paraplegic postoperative outcomes? J Trauma. 2008;64(1):115–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lebl DR, Dicker RA, Spain DA, Brundage SI. Dramatic shift in the primary management of traumatic thoracic aortic rupture. Arch Surg. 2006;141(2):177–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Downing SW, Cardarelli MG, Sperling J, et al. Heparinless partial cardiopulmonary bypass for the repair of aortic trauma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;120:1104–1111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    O’Connor CJ, Rothenberg DM. Anesthetic considerations for descending thoracic aortic surgery: part II. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1995;9:734–747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ling E, Arellano R. Systematic overview of the evidence supporting the use of cerebrospinal fluid drainage in thoracoabdominal aneurysm surgery for prevention of paraplegia. Anesthesiology. 2000;93:1115–1122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Katz NM, Blackstone EH, Kirklin JW, Karp RB. Incremental risk factors for spinal cord injury following operation for acute traumatic aortic transection. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1981;81:669–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hochheiser GM, Morton JR. Operative technique, paraplegia, and mortality after blunt traumatic aortic injury. Arch Surg. 2002;137:434–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Simpson JI, Eide TR, Newman SB, et al. Trimetaphan versus sodium nitroprusside for the control of proximal hypertension during thoracic aortic cross clamping: the effects on spinal cord ischemia. Anesth Analg. 1996;82:68–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pierangeli A, Turinetto B, Galli R, Caldarera R, Fattori R, Gavelli G. Delayed treatment of isthmic aortic rupture. Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;8:280–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Langanay T, Verhoye JP, Corbineau H, et al. Surgical treatment of acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta: timing reappraisal. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2002;21:282–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Maggisano R, Nathens A, Alexandrova N. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta: should one always operate immediately? Ann Vasc Surg. 1995;9:44–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Holmes JH, Bloch RD, Hall RA, Carter YM, Karmy-Jones RC. Natural history of traumatic rupture of thoracic aorta managed non-operatively: a longitudinal analysis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73:1149–1154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kato N, Dake MD, Miller DC, et al. Traumatic thoracic aortic aneurysm: treatment with endovascular stent-grafts. Radiology. 1997;205(3):657–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rousseau H, Soula P, Perreault P, et al. Delayed treatment of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta with endoluminal covered stent. Circulation. 1999;99(4):498–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kasirajan K, Heffernan D, Langsfeld M. Acute thoracic aortic trauma: a comparison of endoluminal stent grafts with open repair and nonoperative management. Ann Vasc Surg. 2003;17:589–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Peterson BG, Matsumura JS, Morasch MD, West MA, Eskandari MK. Percutaneous endovascular repair of blunt thoracic aortic transection. J Trauma. 2005;59(5):1062–1065.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lachat M, Pfammatter T, Witzke H, et al. Acute traumatic aortic rupture: early stent-graft repair. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2002;21(6):959–963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fattori R, Napoli G, Lovato L, et al. Indications for, timing of, and results of catheter-based treatment of traumatic injury to the aorta. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;179(3):603–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Alsac JM, Boura B, Desgranges P, et al. Immediate endovascular repair for acute traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta: a multicenter analysis of 28 cases. J Vasc Surg. 2008;48(6):1369–1374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    McPhee JT, Asham EH, Rohrer MJ, et al. The midterm results of stent graft treatment of thoracic aortic injuries. J Surg Res. 2007;138(2):181–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Uzieblo M, Sanchez LA, Rubin BG, et al. Endovascular repair of traumatic descending thoracic aortic disruptions: should endovascular therapy become the gold standard? Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2004;38:331–337.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Marty-Ané CH, Berthet JP, Branchereau P, Mary H, Alric P. Endovascular repair for acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;75:1803–1807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fayad A. Thoracic endovascular stent graft with a bird’s beak sign. Can J Anaesth. 2008;55:785–786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rousseau H, Dambrin C, Marcheix B, et al. Acute traumatic aortic rupture: a comparison of surgical and stent-graft repair. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;129(5):1050–1055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Noor N, Sadat U, Hayes PD, Thompson MM, Boyle JR. Management of the left subclavian artery during endovascular repair of thethoracic aorta. J Endovasc Ther. 2008;15(2):168–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hausegger KA, Oberwalder P, Tiesenhausen K, et al. Intentional left subclavian artery occlusion by thoracic aortic stent-grafts without surgical transposition. J Endovasc Ther. 2001;8(5):472–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Buz S, Zipfel B, Mulahasanovic S, Pasic M, Weng Y, Hetzer R. Conventional surgical repair and endovascular treatment of acute traumatic aortic rupture. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2008;33(2):143–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Day CP, Buckenham TM. Outcomes of endovascular repair of acute thoracic aortic injury: interrogation of the New Zealand thoracic aortic stent database (NZ TAS). Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2008;36(5):530–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Devitt JH, McLean RF, Koch JP. Anaesthetic management of acute blunt thoracic trauma. Can J Anaesth. 1991;38:506–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Steele EA, Soran D, Marciniak D, Smith CE. Monitoring the trauma patient. In: Smith CE, ed. Trauma Anesthesia. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008:81–100.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Morgan BC, Martin WE, Hornbein TF, Crawford EW, Guntheroth WG. Hemodynamic effects of positive pressure ventilation. Anesthesiology. 1966;27:584–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jardin F, Delorme G, Hardy A, AUvert B, Beuchet A, Bourdarias JP. Reevaluation of hemodynamic consequences of positive pressure ventilation: emphasis on cyclic right ventricular afterloading by mechanical lung inflation. Anesthesiology. 1990;72:966–970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jardin F, Farcot JC, Gueret P, Prost JF, Ozier Y, Bourdarias JP. Cyclical changes in arterial pulse pressure during respiratory support. Circulation. 1983;68:266–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Michard F, Teboul JL. Using heart-lung interactions to assess fluid responsiveness during mechanical ventilation. Crit Care. 2000;4:282–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Coriat P, Vrillon M, Perel A, Baron JF, et al. A comparison of systolic pressure variations and echocardiographic measurements of end-diastolic left ventricular size in patients after aortic surgery. Anesth Analg. 1994;78:46–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kramer A, Zygun D, Hawes H, Easton P, Ferland A. Pulse pressure variation predicts fluid responsiveness following coronary artery bypass surgery. Chest. 2004;126(5):1563–1568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tavernier B, Makhotine O, Lebuffe G, Dupont J, Scherpereel P. Systolic pressure variation as a guide to fluid therapy in patients with sepsis-induced hypotension. Anesthesiology. 1998;89(6):1313–1321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Perel A, Pizov R, Cotev S. The systolic pressure variation is a sensitive indicator of hypovolemia in ventilated dogs subjected to graded hemorrhage. Anesthesiology. 1987;67:498–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rooke GA, Schwid HA, Shapira Y. The effects of graded hemorrhage and intravascular volume replacement on systolic pressure variation in humans during spontaneous mechanical variation. Anesth Analg. 1995;80:925–932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Preisman S, DiSegni E, Vered Z, Perel A. Left ventricular preload and function during graded hemorrhage and retransfusion in pigs: analysis of arterial pressure waveform and correlation with echocardiography. Br J Anaesth. 2002;88:716–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Berkenstadt H, Friedman Z, Preisman S, Keidan I, Livingstone D, Perel A. Pulse pressure and stroke volume variations during severe haemorrhage in ventilated dogs. Br J Anaesth. 2005;94(6):721–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Moomey CB, Fabian TC, Croce MA, et al. Determinants of myocardial performance after blunt chest trauma. J Trauma. 1998;45:988–996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Royse C, Royse A. Use of echocardiography and ultrasound in trauma. In: Smith CE, ed. Trauma Anesthesia. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008:514–2.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kneeshaw JD. Transoesophageal echocardiograpgy (TOE) in the operating room. Br J Anaesth. 2006;97:77–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Swaminathan M, Lineberger CK, McCann RL, Mathew JP. The importance of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Anesth Analg. 2003;97:1566–1572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Dobson G, Petrasek P, Alvarez N. Transesophageal echocardiography enhances endovascular stent placement in traumatic transection of the thoracic aorta. Can J Anaesth. 2004;51:9.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Deogaonkar A, Gupta R, DeGeorgia M, et al. Bispectral index monitoring correlates with sedation scales in brain-injured patients. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:2545–2546.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Paul DB, Umamaheswara Rao GS. Correlation of bispectral index with Glasgow coma score in mild and moderate head injuries. J Clin Monit Comput. 2006;20:399–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bevacqua B, Kazdan D. Is more information better? Intraoperative recall with a Bispectral Index monitor in place. Anesthesiology. 2003;99:507–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Mychaskiw G, Horowitz M, Sachdev V, Heath BJ. Explicit intraoperative recall at a bispectral index of 47. Anesth Analg. 2001;92:808–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mahla M. Neurologic monitoring. In: Cucchiara RF, ed. Clinical Neuroanesthesia. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1998:125–176.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mahla M, Black S, Cucchiara RF. Neurologic monitoring. In: Miller R, ed. Miller’s Anesthesia. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2005:1511–1550.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Murkin JM et al. Monitoring brain oxygen saturation during coronary bypass surgery: a randomized, prospective study. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:51–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dunham CM et al. Correlation of noninvasive cerebral oximetry with cerebral perfusion in the severe heads injured patient: a pilot study. J Trauma. 2002;52(1):40–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dunham CM et al. Cerebral hypoxia in severely brain injured patients is associated with admission Glasgow Coma Score, CT severity, cerebral ­perfusion pressure, and survival. J Trauma. 2004;56(3):482–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rodriguez-Lopez JM, Sanchez-Conde P, Lozano FS, et al. Effects of propofol on the systemic inflammatory response during aortic surgery. Can J Anaesth. 2006;53:701–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Annecke T, Kubitz JC, Kahr S, et al. Effects of sevoflurane and propofol on ischaemia-reperfusion injury after thoracic-aortic occlusion in pigs. Br J Anaesth. 2007;98:581–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mahoney PH, McFarland CC. Field anesthesia and military injury. In: Smith CE, ed. Trauma Anesthesia. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008:343–359.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Buffolo E, Fonseca JHP, Souza JAM, Alves CMR. Revolutionary treatment of aneurysms and dissections of the descending aorta: the endovascular approach. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;74:S1815–S1817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Plaschke K, Boeckler D, Schumacher H, et al. Adenosine-induced cardiac arrest and EEG changes in patients with thoracic aorta endovascular repair. Br J Anaesth. 2006;96:310–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kahn RA, Marin ML, Hollier L, Parsons R, Griepp R. Induction of ventricular fibrillation to facilitate endovascular stent graft repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Anesthesiology. 1998;88:534–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Weigand MA, Motsch J, Bardenheuer HJ. Adenosine-induced transient cardiac arrest for placement of endovascular stent-grafts in the thoracic aorta. Anesthesiology. 1998;89:1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kanellakos GW, Slinger P. Intraoperative one-ling ventilation for trauma anesthesia. In: Smith CE, ed. Trauma Anesthesia. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008:300–313.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Finfer S, Bellomo R, Boyce N, et al. SAFE study investigators: a comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(22):2247–2256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Novikov M, Smith CE. Fluid and blood therapy in trauma. In: Smith CE, ed. Trauma Anesthesia. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008:101–120.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Practice Guidelines for Perioperative Blood Transfusion and Adjuvant Therapies (Approved by the House of Delegates on October 22, 1995 and last amended on October 25, 2005). An Updated Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Perioperative Blood Transfusion and Adjuvant therapies. Available at http://www.asahq.org/publicationsAndServices/BCTGuidesFinal.pdf
  105. 105.
    Hardy JF, de Moerloose P, Samama M. and members of the Groupe d’intérêt en Hémostase Périopératoire Massive transfusion and coagulopathy: pathophysiology and implications for clinical management. Can J Anaesth. 2004;51:293–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Naik VN, Mazer CD, Latter DA, et al. Successful treatment using recombinant factor VIIa for severe bleeding post cardiopulmonary bypass. Can J Anaesth. 2003;50:599–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Goskowicz R, Harrell JH, Roth DM. Intraoperative diagnosis of torsion of the left lung after repair of a disruption of the descending thoracic aorta. Anesthesiology. 1997;87:164–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Smith CE, Yamat RA. Avoiding hypothermia in the trauma patient. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2000;13:167–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Soreide E, Smith CE. Hypothermia in trauma. In: Smith CE, ed. Trauma Anesthesia. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008:445–464.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dhir S, Ganapathy S. Trauma and regional anesthesia. In: Smith CE, ed. Trauma Anesthesia. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008:471–498.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ryan D, Tabbaa K. Posttrauma chronic pain. In: Smith CE, ed. Trauma Anesthesia. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008:544–568.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kehlet H. The surgical stress response: should it be prevented? Can J Surg. 1991;34:565–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Rosenberg A, Albert DB, Bernstein RL. Regional anesthesia for orthopaedic trauma. Probl Anesth. 1994;8(3):426–444.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Orliaguet G, Carli P. Thoracic blocks. In: Rosenberg AD, Grande CM, Bernstein RL, eds. Pain Management and Regional Anesthesia in Trauma. London: WB Saunders; 1999:239–251.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kavanagh BP, Katz J, Sandler AN. Pain control after thoracic surgery: a review of current techniques. Anesthesiology. 1994;81:737–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mackersie RC, Shackford SR, Hoyt DB, et al. Continuous epidural fentanyl analgesia: ventilatory function improvement with routine use in treatment of blunt chest trauma. J Trauma. 1987;27:1207–1212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Shulman M, Sandler AN, Bradley JW, et al. Post thoracotomy pain and pulmonary function following epidural and systemic morphine. Anesthesiology. 1984;61:569–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Moon MR, Luchette FA, Gibson SW, et al. Prospective, randomized comparison of epidural versus parenteral opioid analgesia in thoracic trauma. Ann Surg. 1999;229:684–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Grass JA. Surgical outcome: regional anesthesia and analgesia versus general anesthesia. Anesthesiol Rev. 1993;10:117–125.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Conacher ID. Thoracic anesthesia: post-thoracotomy analgesia. Anesthesiol Clin N Am. 2001;19:611–625.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Dhir S, Velayutham V, Ganapathy S. Pharmacologic management of acute pain in trauma. In: Smith CE, ed. Trauma Anesthesia. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008:528–543.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mattox K, Wall MJ. Historical review of blunt injury to the thoracic aorta. Chest Surg Clin N Am. 2000;10:167–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Pretre R, Chilcott M. Blunt trauma to the heart and great vessels. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(9):626–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Oxorn D, Edelist G, Smith MS. An introduction to transoesophageal echocardiography: II. Clinical applications. Can J Anaesth. 1996;43:278–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Michard F, Teboul JL. Respiratory changes in arterial pressure in mechanically ventilated patients. In: Vincent JL, ed. Yearbook of Intensive care and Emergency Medicine. Berlin: Springer; 2000:696–704.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Dutton RP. Shock management. In: Smith CE, ed. Trauma Anesthesia. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008:55–68.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    May TJ, Greilich PE. Cerebral oximetry in cardiac surgery. Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists Newsletter. 2008.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Repine TB, Perkins JG, Kauvar DS, Blackborne L. The use of fresh whole blood in massive transfusion. J Trauma. 2006;60:S59–S69.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiaMetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations