Anesthesia for Endovascular Aortic Surgery

  • Adam B. Lerner


Endovascular aortic surgery presents unique challenges to the anesthesia care team. The ability to care for potentially complex vascular problems in patients with a wide range of comorbidities through a relatively noninvasive, percutaneous approach allows for a seemingly endless number of permutations of anesthetic interventions. This can allow for what might be thought of as “interesting” combinations of interventions such as the placement of invasive arterial catheters at multiple sites and/or pulmonary artery catheterization in a patient ­undergoing a procedure under monitored anesthesia care (MAC) with little or no sedation. Furthermore, while the hope is always for a quick and complication-free operative course, the anesthesia care team must be prepared for potential catastrophe given the nature and location of the inherent pathology.


Spinal Cord Ischemia Neuraxial Anesthesia Aortic Pathology Monitor Anesthesia Care Monitor Anesthesia Care 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    May J, White GH, Yu W, et al. Endovascular grafting for abdominal aortic aneurysms: changing incidence and indications for conversion to open operation. Cardiovasc Surg. 1998;6:194–197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fleisher LA, Beckman JA, Brown KA, et al. ACC/AHA 2006 guideline update on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation for noncardiac surgery: focused update on perioperative beta-blocker therapy–a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Update the 2002 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery). Anesth Analg. 2007;104:15–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lee AF, Joshua AB, Kenneth AB, et al. ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation and Care for Noncardiac Surgery. Circulation. 2007;116:1971–1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Riddel JM, Black JH, Brewster DC, Dunn PF. Endovascular abdominal aortic repair. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2005;43:79–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5.  5.
    Walker SR, Yusuf SW, Wenham PW, Hopkinson BR. Renal complications following endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. J Endovasc Surg. 1998;5:318–322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6.  6.
    Leykin Y, Rubulotta FM, Mancinelli P, Tosolini G, Gullo A. Epidural anaesthesia for endovascular stent graft repair of a ruptured thoracic aneurysm. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2003;31:455–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7.  7.
    Falkensammer J, Hakaim AG, Klocker J, et al. Paravertebral blockade with propofol sedation versus general anesthesia for elective endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Vascular. 2006;14:17–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8.  8.
    Grabowska-Gaweł A, Molski S, Porzych K. Effects of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia in patients undergoing abdominal aorta aneurysms stent-grafting. Wiad Lek. 2006;59:110–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9.  9.
    Kim SS, Leibowitz AB. Endovascular thoracic aortic aneurysm repair using a single catheter for spinal anesthesia and cerebrospinal fluid drainage. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2001;15:88–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mathes DD, Kern JA. Continuous spinal anesthetic technique for endovascular aortic stent graft surgery. J Clin Anesth. 2000;12:487–490.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aadahl P, Lundbom J, Hatlinghus S, Myhre HO. Regional anesthesia for endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. J Endovasc Surg. 1997;4:56–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brown BJ, Zakhary S, Rogers L, Ellis-Stoll C, Gable D, Ramsay MA. Use of dexmedetomidine versus general anesthesia for endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2006;19:213–215.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kahn RA, Moskowitz DM. Endovascular aortic repair. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2002;16:218–233.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Horlocker TT, Wedel DJ, Rowlingson JC, et al. Regional Anesthesia in the Patient Receiving Antithrombotic or Thrombolytic Therapy: American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Evidence-Based Guidelines (Third Edition). Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35:64–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    EVAR trial participants. Endovascular aneurysm repair and outcome in patients unfit for open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (EVAR trial 2): ­randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;365:2187–2192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Greenhalgh RM, Brown LC, Kwong GP, Powell JT, Thompson SG. Comparison of endovascular aneurysm repair with open repair in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (EVAR trial 1), 30-day operative mortality results: randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004;364:843–848.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Prinssen M, Verhoeven EL, Buth J, et al. A randomized trial comparing conventional and endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1607–1618.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ruppert V, Leurs LJ, Steckmeier B, Buth J, Umscheid T. Influence of anesthesia type on outcome after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair: an analysis based on EUROSTAR data. J Vasc Surg. 2006;44:16–21. discussion.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ruppert V, Leurs LJ, Rieger J, Steckmeier B, Buth J, Umscheid T. Risk-adapted outcome after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair: analysis of anesthesia types based on EUROSTAR data. J Endovasc Ther. 2007;14:12–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Parra JR, Crabtree T, McLafferty RB, et al. Anesthesia technique and outcomes of endovascular aneurysm repair. Ann Vasc Surg. 2005;19(1):123–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Verhoeven EL, Cina CS, Tielliu IF, et al. Local anesthesia for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg. 2005;42:402–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bettex DA, Lachat M, Pfammatter T, Schmidlin D, Turina MI, Schmid ER. To compare general, epidural and local anaesthesia for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2001;21: 179–184.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    De Virgilio C, Romero L, Donayre C, et al. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with general versus local anesthesia: a comparison of cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality rates. J Vasc Surg. 2002;36:988–991.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sadat U, Cooper DG, Gillard JH, Walsh SR, Hayes PD. Impact of the type of anesthesia on outcome after elective endovascular aortic aneurysm repair: literature review. Vascular. 2008;16:340–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Henretta JP, Hodgson KJ, Mattos MA, et al. Feasibility of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms with local anesthesia with intravenous sedation. J Vasc Surg. 1999;29:793–798.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stelmach WS, Myers KA, Scott DF, Devine TJ, Lee L. In vivo heparin response and consumption in patients before and during arterial reconstructive surgery.J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 1991;32:166–173.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Martin P, Greenstein D, Gupta NK, Walker DR, Kester RC. Systemic heparinization during peripheral vascular surgery: thromboelastographic, activated coagulation time, and heparin titration monitoring. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1994;8:150–152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Avidan MS, Levy JH, Scholz J, et al. A phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study on the efficacy of recombinant human antithrombin in heparin-resistant patients scheduled to undergo cardiac surgery necessitating cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology. 2005;102:276–284.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Subramaniam B, Panzica PJ, Pawlowski JB, et al. Epidural blood patch for acute subdural hematoma after spinal catheter drainage during hybrid thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2007;21:704–708.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Swaminathan M, Lineberger CK, McCann RL, Mathew JP. The importance of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Anesth Analg. 2003;97:1566–1572.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Van der Starre P, Guta C, Dake M, Ihnken K, Robbins R. The value of transesophageal echocardiography for endovascular graft stenting of the ascending aorta. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2004;18:466–468.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rapezzi C, Rocchi G, Fattori R, et al. Usefulness of transesophageal echocardiographic monitoring to improve the outcome of stent-graft treatment of ­thoracic aortic aneurysms. Am J Cardiol. 2001;87: 315–319.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Moskowitz DM, Kahn RA, Konstadt SN, Mitty H, Hollier LH, Marin ML. Intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography as an adjuvant to fluoroscopy during endovascular thoracic aortic repair. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 1999;17:22–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Koschyk DH, Nienaber CA, Knap M, et al. How to guide stent-graft implantation in type B aortic dissection? Comparison of angiography, transesophageal echocardiography, and intravascular ultrasound. Circulation. 2005;112:I260–I264.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rocchi G, Lofiego C, Biagini E, et al. Transesophageal echocardiography-guided algorithm for stent-graft implantation in aortic dissection. J Vasc Surg. 2004;40:880–885.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gutsche JT, Cheung AT, McGarvey ML, et al. Risk factors for perioperative stroke after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;84: 1195–1200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Feezor RJ, Martin TD, Hess PJ, et al. Risk factors for perioperative stroke during thoracic endovascular aortic repairs (TEVAR). J Endovasc Ther. 2007;14: 568–573.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Khoynezhad A, Donayre CE, Bui H, Kopchok GE, Walot I, White RA. Risk factors of neurologic deficit after thoracic aortic endografting. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;83:S882–S889.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Buth J, Harris PL, Hobo R, et al. Neurologic complications associated with endovascular repair of thoracic aortic pathology: Incidence and risk factors. a study from the European Collaborators on Stent/Graft Techniques for Aortic Aneurysm Repair (EUROSTAR) registry. J Vasc Surg. 2007;46:1103–1110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Khoynezhad A, Kruse MJ, Donayre CE, White RA. Use of transcranial Doppler ultrasound in endovascular repair of a type B aortic dissection. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;86:289–291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hong SW, Shim JK, Choi YS, Kim DH, Chang BC, Kwak YL. Prediction of cognitive dysfunction and patients’ outcome following valvular heart surgery and the role of cerebral oximetry. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2008;33:560–565.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Taillefer MC, Denault AY. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy in adult heart surgery: systematic review of its clinical efficacy. Can J Anaesth. 2005;52: 79–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Murkin JM, Adams SJ, Novick RJ, et al. Monitoring brain oxygen saturation during coronary bypass surgery: a randomized, prospective study. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:51–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Anyanwu A, Spielvogel D, Griepp R. Spinal cord protection for descending aortic surgery. Clinical and scientific basis for contemporary surgical practice. In: Rosseau H, Verhoye JP, Heautot JF, eds. Thoracic Aortic Diseases. 1st ed. Berlin: Springer; 2006:81–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Weigang E, Hartert M, Siegenthaler MP, et al. Neurophysiological monitoring during thoracoabdominal aortic endovascular stent graft implantation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2006;29:392–396.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hnath JC, Mehta M, Taggert JB, et al. Strategies to improve spinal cord ischemia in endovascular thoracic aortic repair: outcomes of a prospective cerebrospinal fluid drainage protocol. J Vasc Surg. 2008;48: 836–840.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Amabile P, Grisoli D, Giorgi R, Bartoli JM, Piquet P. Incidence and determinants of spinal cord ischaemia in stent-graft repair of the thoracic aorta. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2008;35:455–461.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Maldonado TS, Rockman CB, Riles E, et al. Ischemic complications after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg. 2004;40:703–709.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Griepp RB, Ergin MA, Galla JD, Klein JJ, Spielvogel D, Griepp EB. Minimizing spinal cord injury during repair of descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms: the Mount Sinai approach. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1998;10:25–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Smith MS, Grichnik KP. Anesthetic considerations for lung transplantation and thoracic aortic surgery. In: Miller RD, Reves JG, eds. Atlas of Anesthesia, Cardiothoracic Anesthesia, vol. VIII. Philadelphia: Current Medicine (Churchill Livingstone); 1999:6.1–18.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jacobs MJ, de Mol BA, Elenbaas T, et al. Spinal cord blood supply in patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. J Vasc Surg. 2002;35:30–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Griepp RB, Ergin MA, Galla JD, et al. Looking for the artery of Adamkiewicz: a quest to minimize paraplegia after operations for aneurysms of the descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1996;112:1202–1213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Martin DJ, Martin TD, Hess PJ, Daniels MJ, Feezor RJ, Lee WA. Spinal cord ischemia after TEVAR in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. J Vasc Surg. 2009;49(2):302–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Weigang E, Sircar R, von Samson P, et al. Efficacy and frequency of cerebrospinal fluid drainage in operative management of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007;55:73–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Weigang E, Hartert M, Siegenthaler MP, et al. Perioperative management to improve neurologic outcome in thoracic or thoracoabdominal aortic stent-grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;82:1679–1687.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Husain AM, Swaminathan M, McCann RL, Hughes GC. Neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring during endovascular stent graft repair of the descending thoracic aorta. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;24: 328–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kawaguchi M, Furuya H. Intraoperative spinal cord monitoring of motor function with myogenic motor evoked potentials: a consideration in anesthesia. J Anesth. 2004;18:18–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ku AS, Hu Y, Irwin MG, et al. Effect of sevoflurane/nitrous oxide versus propofol anaesthesia on somatosensory evoked potential monitoring of the spinal cord during surgery to correct scoliosis. Br J Anaesth. 2002;88:502–507.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Reinacher PC, Priebe HJ, Blumrich W, Zentner J, Scheufler KM. The effects of stimulation pattern and sevoflurane concentration on intraoperative motor-evoked potentials. Anesth Analg. 2006;102: 888–895.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ubags LH, Kalkman CJ, Been HD. Influence of isoflurane on myogenic motor evoked potentials to single and multiple transcranial stimuli during nitrous oxide/opioid anesthesia. Neurosurgery. 1998;43:90–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hans P, Bonhomme V. Why we still use intravenous drugs as the basic regimen for neurosurgical anaesthesia. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2006;19:498–503.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bala E, Sessler DI, Nair DR, McLain R, Dalton JE, Farag E. Motor and somatosensory evoked potentials are well maintained in patients given dexmedetomidine during spine surgery. Anesthesiology. 2008;109:417–425.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Van Dongen EP, ter Beek HT, Schepens MA, et al. Within-patient variability of myogenic motor-evoked potentials to multipulse transcranial electrical stimulation during two levels of partial neuromuscular blockade in aortic surgery. Anesth Analg. 1999;88:22–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cheung AT, Pochettino A, McGarvey ML, et al. Strategies to manage paraplegia risk after endovascular stent repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80:1280–1288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Dardik A, Perler BA, Roseborough GS, Williams GM. Subdural hematoma after thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair: an underreported complication of spinal fluid drainage? J Vasc Surg. 2002;36:47–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Weaver KD, Wiseman DB, Farber M, Ewend MG, Marston W, Keagy BA. Complications of lumbar drainage after thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg. 2001;34:623–627.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sessler DI. Temperature monitoring and perioperative thermoregulation. Anesthesiology. 2008;109: 318–338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Qu L, Raithel D. Techniques for precise thoracic endograft placement. J Vasc Surg. 2009;49: 1069–1072.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dorros G, Cohn JM. Adenosine-induced transient cardiac asystole enhances precise deployment of stent-grafts in the thoracic or abdominal aorta. J Endovasc Surg. 1996;3:270–272.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Marty B, Morales CC, Tozzi P, Ruchat P, Chassot PG, von Segesser LK. Partial inflow occlusion facilitates accurate deployment of thoracic aortic endografts. J Endovasc Ther. 2004;11:175–179.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Aronson S, Dyke CM, Stierer KA, et al. The ECLIPSE trials: comparative studies of clevidipine to nitroglycerin, sodium nitroprusside, and nicardipine for acute hypertension treatment in cardiac surgery patients. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:1110–1121.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kahn RA, Moskowitz DM, Marin ML, et al. Safety and efficacy of high-dose adenosine-induced asystole during endovascular AAA repair. J Endovasc Ther. 2000;7:292–296.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fang TD, Lippmann M, Kakazu C, et al. High-dose adenosine-induced asystole assisting accurate deployment of thoracic stent grafts in conscious patients. Ann Vasc Surg. 2008;22:602–607.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lippmann M, Kakazu C, Fang TD, Bui H, Donayre C, White RA. Adenosine’s usefulness in vascular surgery. Tex Heart Inst J. 2007;34:258–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kahn RA, Moskowitz DM, Marin M, Hollier L. Anesthetic considerations for endovascular aortic repair. Mt Sinai J Med. 2002;69:57–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Plaschke K, Böckler D, Schumacher H, Martin E, Bardenheuer HJ. Adenosine-induced cardiac arrest and EEG changes in patients with thoracic aorta endovascular repair. Br J Anaesth. 2006;96:310–316.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Yasuda S, Tateoka K, Sakurai K, Takahata O, Iwasaki H. Anesthetic management of endovascular stent graft placement for thoracic aortic aneurysm using induction of transient cardiac asystole by ATP. Masui. 2002;51:1023–1025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tanito Y, Endou M, Koide Y, Okumura F. ATP-induced ventricular asystole and hypotension during endovascular stenting surgery. Can J Anaesth. 1998;45:491–494.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Pornratanarangsi S, Webster MW, Alison P, Nand P. Rapid ventricular pacing to lower blood pressure during endograft deployment in the thoracic aorta. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81:e21–e23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Yamagishi A, Kunisawa T, Katsumi N, Nagashima M, Takahata O, Iwasaki H. Anesthesic management of thoracic aortic stent graft deployment using rapid ventricular pacing. Masui. 2008;57:983–986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kahn RA, Marin ML, Hollier L, Parsons R, Griepp R. Induction of ventricular fibrillation to facilitate endovascular stent graft repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Anesthesiology. 1998;88:534–536.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hata M, Tanaka Y, Iguti A, Saito H, Ishibashi T, Tabayashi K. Endovascular repair of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm: a tip for systemic pressure reduction. J Vasc Surg. 1999;29:551–553.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bernard EO, Schmid ER, Lachat ML, Germann RC. Nitroglycerin to control blood pressure during endovascular stent-grafting of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms. J Vasc Surg. 2000;31:790–793.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Diethrich EB. A safe, simple alternative for pressure reduction during aortic endograft deployment. J Endovasc Surg. 1996;3:275.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nienaber CA, Kische S, Rehders TC, et al. Rapid pacing for better placing: comparison of techniques for precise deployment of endografts in the thoracic aorta. J Endovasc Ther. 2007;14:506–512.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mordecai MM, Crawford CC. Intraoperative management: endovascular stents. Anesthesiol Clin North America. 2004;22:319–332.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Velazquez OC, Carpenter JP, Baum RA, et al. Perigraft air, fever, and leukocytosis after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Am J Surg. 1999;178:185–189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Storck M, Scharrer-Pamler R, Kapfer X, et al. Does a postimplantation syndrome following endovascular treatment of aortic aneurysms exist? Vasc Surg. 2001;35:23–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Meites G, Sellin M. Anesthetic management of the endovascular thoracic aorta. In: Rosseau H, Verhoye JP, Heautot JF, eds. Thoracic Aortic Diseases. 1st ed. Berlin: Springer; 2006:81–98.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cross KS, Bouchier-Hayes D, Leahy AL. Consumptive coagulopathy following endovascular stent repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2000;19:94–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Storck M, Scharrer-Pamler R, Kapfer X, et al. Does a postimplantation syndrome following endovascular treatment of aortic aneurysms exist? Vasc Surg. 2001;35:23–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Baril DT, Kahn RA, Ellozy SH, Carroccio A, Marin ML. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: emerging developments and anesthetic considerations. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2007;21:730–742.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bolke E, Jehle PM, Storck M, et al. Endovascular stent-graft placement versus conventional open surgery in infrarenal aortic aneurysm: a prospective study on acute phase response and clinical outcome. Clin Chim Acta. 2001;314:203–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain MedicineBeth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiaHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations