Pathophysiology of Diabetic Retinopathy

  • Michael W. Stewart


The retina was first described by Herophilus of Chalcedon around 300 bc. It was named by Rufos of Ephesus (c. 110 ad) and appeared to early anatomists as a surrounding net which supported the vitreous. Though Galen noted structural similarities to the brain, he was unable to provide further understanding regarding its function. It was Kepler who first suggested that the retina served as the eye’s primary photoreceptor tissue. By using alcohol fixation, Treviranus (1835) performed the first detailed microscopic retinal studies. Only with the subsequent development of electron microscopy, trypsin digest, clinical fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography have scientists been able to understand the retina’s cellular connections, ultrastructure, and retinal vasculature, as well as correlate anatomical and clinical findings.1


Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Diabetic Retinopathy Macular Edema Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Level Diabetic Macular Edema 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyMayo School of MedicineJacksonvilleUSA

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