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Tropomyosin pp 201-222 | Cite as

Human Tropomyosin Isoforms in the Regulation of Cytoskeleton Functions

  • Jim Jung-Ching Lin
  • Robbin D. Eppinga
  • Kerri S. Warren
  • Keith R. McCrae
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 644)

Abstract

Over the past two decades, extensive molecular studies have identified multiple tropomyosin isoforms existing in all mammalian cells and tissues. In humans, tropomyosins are encoded by TPM1 (α-Tm, 15q22.1), TPM2 (β-Tm, 9p13.2–p13.1), TPM3 (γ-Tm, 1q21.2) and TPM4 (δ-Tm, 19p13.1) genes. Through the use of different promoters, alternatively spliced exons and different sites of poly(A) addition signals, at least 22 different tropomyosin cDNAs with full-length open reading frame have been cloned. Compelling evidence suggests that these isoforms play important determinants for actin cytoskeleton functions, such as intracellular vesicle movement, cell migration, cytokinesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis. In vitro biochemical studies and in vivo localization studies suggest that different tropomyosin isoforms have differences in their actin-binding properties and their effects on other actin-binding protein functions and thus, in their specification of actin microfilaments. In this chapter, we will review what has been learned from experimental studies on human tropomyosin isoforms about the mechanisms for differential localization and functions of tropomyosin. First, we summarize current information concerning human tropomyosin isoforms and relate this to the functions of structural homologues in rodents. We will discuss general strategies for differential localization of tropomyosin isoforms, particularly focusing on differential protein turnover and differential isoform effects on other actin binding protein functions. We will then review tropomyosin functions in regulating cell motility and in modulating the anti-angiogenic activity of cleaved high molecular weight kininogen (HKa) and discuss future directions in this area.

Keywords

Actin Dynamic Nemaline Myopathy High Molecular Weight Kininogen Nonmuscle Cell Myosin ATPase Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jim Jung-Ching Lin
    • 1
  • Robbin D. Eppinga
    • 1
  • Kerri S. Warren
    • 1
  • Keith R. McCrae
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology School of MedicineCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

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