Advertisement

Tropomyosin pp 168-186 | Cite as

Tropomyosin Function in Yeast

  • David Pruyne
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 644)

Abstract

Tropomyosins were discovered as regulators of actomyosin contractility in muscle cells, making yeasts and other fungi seem unlikely to harbor such proteins. Fungal cells are encased in a rigid cell wall and do not engage in the same sorts of contractile shape changes of animal cells. However, discovery of actin and myosin in yeast raised the possibility for a role for tropomyosin in regulating their interaction. [1,2], Through abiochemical search, fungal tropomyosins were identified with strong similarities to their animal counterparts in terms of protein structure and physical properties. Two particular fungi, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have provided powerful genetic systems for studying tropomyosins in nonmetazoans. In these yeasts, tropomyosins associate with subsets of actin filamentous structures. Mutational studies of tropomyosin genes and biochemical assyas of purified proteins point to roles for these proteins as factors that stabilize actin filaments, promote actin-based structures of particular architecture and help maintain distinct biochemical identities among different filament populations. Tropomyosin-enriched filaments are the cytoskeletal structures that promote the major cell shape changes of these organisms: polarized growth and cell division.

Keywords

Secretory Vesicle Schizosaccharomyces Pombe Myosin Versus Division Site Actin Cable 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Koteliansky VE, Glukhova MA, Bejanian MV et al. Isolation and characterization of actin-like protein from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett 1979; 102 (1):55–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Watts FZ, Miller DM, Orr E. Identification of myosin heavy chain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature 1985; 316 (6023):83–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W et al. Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 1990; 215(3):403–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Phillips GN Jr, Lattman EE, Cummins P et al. Crystal structure and molecular interactions of tropomyosin. Nature 1979; 278(5703):413–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liu HP, Bretscher A. Purification of tropomyosin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identification of related proteins in Schizosaccharomyces and Physarum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989; 86(1):90–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maytum R, Geeves MA, Konrad M. Actomyosin regulatory properties of yeast tropomyosin are dependent upon N-terminal modification. Biochemistry 2000; 39(39):11913–11920.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wen KK, Kuang B, Rubenstein PA. Tropomyosin-dependent filament formation by a polymerization-defective mutant yeast actin (V266G, L267G). J Biol Chem 2000; 275(51):40594–40600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Drees B, Brown C, Barrell BG et al. Tropomyosin is essential in yeast, yet the TPM1 and TPM2 products perform distinct functions. J Cell Biol 1995; 128(3):383–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Skoumpla K, Coulton AT, Lehman W et al. Acetylation regulates tropomyosin function in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Cell Sci 2007; 120(Pt 9):1635–1645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hermann GJ, King EJ, Shaw JM. The yeast gene, MDM20, is necessary for mitochondrial inheritance and organization of the actin cytoskeleton. J Cell Biol 1997; 137(1):141–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Singer JM, Shaw JM. Mdm20 protein functions with Nat3 protein to acetylate Tpm 1 protein and regulate tropomyosin-actin interactions in budding yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003; 100(13):7644–7649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Evangelista M, Pruyne D, Amberg DC et al. Formins direct Arp 2/3-independent actin filament assembly to polarize cell growth in yeast. Nat Cell Biol 2002; 4(3):260–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Polevoda B, Cardillo TS, Doyle TC et al. Nat3p and Mdm20p are required for function of yeast NatB Nalpha-terminal acetyltransferase and of actin and tropomyosin. J Biol Chem 2003; 278(33):30686–30697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maytum R, Konrad M, Lehrer SS et al. Regulatory properties of tropomyosin effects of length, isoform and N-terminal sequence. Biochemistry 2001; 40(24):7334–7341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu HP, Bretscher A. Disruption of the single tropomyosin gene in yeast results in the disappearance of actin cables from the cytoskeleton. Cell 1989; 57(2):233–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Balasubramanian MK, Helfman DM, Hemmingsen SM. A new tropomyosin essential for cytokinesis in the fission yeast S. pombe. Nature 1992; 360(6399):84–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cummings L, Riley L, Black L et al. Genomic BLAST: custom-defined virtual databases for complete and unfinished genomes. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2002; 216(2):133–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    James TY, Kauff F, Schoch CL et al. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 2006; 443(7113):818–822.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hitchcock-DeGregori SE, An Y. Integral repeats and a continuous coiled coil are required for binding of striated muscle tropomyosin to the regulated actin filament. J Biol Chem 1996; 271(7):3600–3603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hitchcock-DeGregori SE, Varnell TA. Tropomyosin has discrete actin-binding sites with sevenfold and fourteenfold periodicities. J Mol Biol 1990; 214(4):885–896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gunning PW, Schevzov G, Kee AJ et al. Tropomyosin isoforms: divining rods for actin cytoskeleton function. Trends Cell Biol 2005; 15(6):333–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wolfe KH, Shields DC. Molecular evidence for an ancient duplication of the entire yeast genome. Nature 1997; 387(6634):708–713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pruyne DW, Schott DH, Bretcher A. Tropomyosin-containing actin cables direct the Myo2p-dependent polarized delivery of secretory vesicles in budding yeast. J Cell Biol 1998; 143(7):1931–1945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Huckaba TM, Lipkin T, Pou LA. Roles of type II myosin and a tropomyosin isoform in retrograde actin flow in budding yeast. J Cell Biol 2006; 175(6):957–969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chant J, Mischke M, Mitchell E et al. Role of Bud3p in producing the axial budding pattern of yeast. J Cell Biol 1995; 129(3):767–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marks J, Hyams J. Localization of F-action through the cell division cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Eur J Cell Biol 1985; 39:27–32.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Adams AE, Pringle JR. Relationship of actin and tubulin distribution to bud growth in wild-type and morphogenetic-mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol 1984; 98(3):934–945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mulholland J, Preuss D, Moon A et al. Ultrastructure of the yeast actin cytoskeleton and its association with the plasma membrane. J Cell Biol 1994; 125(2):381–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Arai R, Nakano K, Mabuchi I. Subcellular localization and possible function of actin, tropomyosin and actin-related protein 3 (Arp3) in the fission yeast Schizoasaccharomyces pombe. Eur J Cell Biol 1998; 76(4):288–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sirotkin V, Beltzner CC, Marchand JB et al. Interactions of WASp, myosin-I and verprolin with Arp2/3 complex during actin patch assembly in fission yeast. J Cell Biol 2005; 170(4):637–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Moreau V, Madania A, Martin RP et al. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin-related protein Arp2 is involved in the actin cytoskeleton. J Cell Biol 1996; 134(1):117–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kaksonen M, Toret CP, Drubin DG. A modular design for the clathrin-and actin-mediated endocytosis machinery. Cell 2005; 123(2):305–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kaksonen M, Sun Y, Drubin DG. A pathway for association of receptors, adaptors and actin during endocytic internalization. Cell 2003; 115(4):475–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Winter D, Podtelejnikov AV, Mann M et al. The complex containing actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 is required for the motility and integrity of yeast actin patches. Curr Biol 1997; 7(7):519–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    McCollum D, Feoktistova A, Morphew M et al. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe actin-related protein, Arp3, is a component of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and interacts with profilin. EMBO J 1996; 15(23):6438–6446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Winter DC, Choe EY, Li R. Genetic dissection of the budding yeast Arp 2/3 complex: a comparison of the in vivo and structural roles of individual subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96(13):7288–7293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tolliday N, VerPlank L, Li R. Rho 1 directs formin-mediated actin ring assembly during budding yeast cytokinesis. Curr Biol 2002; 12(21):1864–1870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sagot I, Klee SK, Pellman D. Yeast formins regulate cell polarity by controlling the assembly of actin cables. Nat Cell Biol 2002; 4(1):42–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bi E, Maddox P, Lew DJ et al. Involvement of an actomyosin contractile ring in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytokinesis. J Cell Biol 1998; 142(5):1301–1312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Feierbach B, Chang F. Roles of the fission yeast formin for3p in cell polarity, actin cable formation and symmetric cell division. Curr Biol 2001; 11(21):1656–1665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chang F, Woollard A, Nurse P. Isolation and characterization of fission yeast mutants defective in the assembly and placement of the contractile actin ring. J Cell Sci 1996; 109 (Pt 1):131–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chang F, Drubin D, Nurse P. cdc12p, a protein required for cytokinesis in fission yeast, is a component of the cell division ring and interacts with profilin. J Cell Biol 1997; 137(1):169–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Petersen J, Nielsen O, Egel R et al. FH3, a domain found in formins, targets the fission yeast formin Fusl to the projection tip during conjugation. J Cell Biol 1998; 141(5):1217–1228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Volkmann N, Amana KJ, Stoilova-McPhie S et al. Structure of Arp2/3 complex in its activated state and in actin filament branch junctions. Science 2001; 293(5539):2456–2459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Young ME, Cooper JA, Bridgman PC. Yeast actin patches are networks of branched actin filaments. J Cell Biol 2004; 166(5):629–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lehrer SS, Golitsina NL, Geeves MA. Actin-tropomyosin activation of myosin subfragment 1 ATPase and thin filament cooperativity. The role of tropomyosin flexibility and end-to-end interactions. Biochemistry 1997; 36(44):13449–13454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sagot I, Rodal AA, Moseley J et al. An actin nucleation mechanism mediated by Bnil and profilin. Nat Cell Biol 2002; 4(8):626–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pruyne D, Evangelista M, Yang C et al. Role of formins in actin assembly: nucleation and barbed-end association. Science 2002; 297(5581):612–615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Xu Y, Moseley JB, Sagot I et al. Crystal structures of a Formin Homology-2 domain reveal a tethered dimer architecture. Cell 2004; 116(5):711–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Otomo T, Tomchick DR, Otomo C et al. Structural basis of actin filament nucleation and processive capping by a formin homology 2 domain. Nature 2005; 433(7025):488–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pring M, Evangelista M, Boone C et al. Mechanism of formin-induced nucleation of actin filaments. Biochemistry 2003; 42(2):486–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Zigmond SH, Evangelista M, Boone C et al. Formin leaky cap allows elongation in the presence of tight capping proteins. Curr Biol 2003; 13(20):1820–1823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kovar DR, Kuhn JR, Tichy AL et al. The fission yeast cytokinesis formin Cdc12p is a barbed end actin filament capping protein gated by profilin. J Cell Biol 2003; 161(5):875–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mosely JB, Sagot I, Manning AL et al. A conserved mechanism for Bnil-and mDial-induced actin assembly and dual regulation of Bnil by Bud6 and profilin. Mol Biol Cell 2004; 15(2):896–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kovar DR, Pollard TD. Insertional assembly of actin filament barbed ends in association with formins produces piconewton forces. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004; 101(41):14725–14730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wawro B, Greenfield NJ, Wear MA et al. Tropomyosin Regulates Elongation by Formin at the Fast-Growing End of the Actin Filament. Biochemistry 2007; 46(27):8146–8155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Blanchoin L, Pollard TD, Hitchcock-DeGregori SE. Inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex-nucleated actin polymerization and branch formation by tropomyosin. Curr Biol 2001; 11(16):1300–1304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Liu H, Bretscher A. Characterization of TPM1 disrupted yeast cells indicates an involvement of tropomyosin in directed vesicular transport. J Cell Biol 1992; 118(2):285–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nurse P, Thuriaux P, Nasmyth K. Genetic control of the cell division cycle in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Gen Genet 1976; 146(2):167–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pelham RJ Jr, Chang F. Role of actin polymerization and actin cables in actin-patch movement in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Nat Cell Biol 2001; 3(3):235–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Motegi F, Arai R, Mabuchi I. Identification of two type V myosins in fission yeast, one of which functions in polarized cell growth and moves rapidly in the cell. Mol Biol Cell 2001; 12(5):1367–1380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Broschat KO. Tropomyosin prevents depolymerization of actin filaments from the pointed end. J Biol Chem 1990; 265(34):21323–21329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Broschat KO, Weber A, Burgess DR. Tropomyosin stabilizes the pointed end of actin filaments by slowing depolymerization. Biochemistry 1989; 28(21):8501–8506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Maciver SK. How ADF/cofilin depolymerizes actin filaments. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1998; 10(1):140–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rodal AA, Tetreault JW, Lappalainen P et al. Aip 1p interacts with cofilin to disassemble actin filaments. J Cell Biol 1999; 145(6):1251–1264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Okada K, Obinata T, Abe H. XAIP1: a Xenopus homologue of yeast actin interacting protein 1 (AIP1), which induces disassembly of actin filaments cooperatively with ADF/cofilin family proteins. J Cell Sci 1999; 112 (Pt 10): 1553–1565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Cooper JA. Actin dynamics: tropomyosin provides stability. Curr Biol 2002; 12(15):R523–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Nakano K, Mabuchi I. Actin-depolymerizing protein Adf1 is required for formation and maintenance of the contractile ring during cytokinesis in fission yeast. Mol Biol Cell 2006; 17(4):1933–1945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Okada K, Ravi H, Smith EM et al. Aipl and cofilin promote rapid turnover of yeast actin patches and cables: a coordinated mechanism for severing and capping filaments. Mol Biol Cell 2006; 17(7):2855–2868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Belmont LD, Drubin DG. The yeast V159N actin mutant reveals roles for actin dynamics in vivo. J Cell Biol 1998; 142(5):1289–1299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kamasaki T, Arai R, Osumi M et al. Directionality of F-actin cables changes during the fission yeast cell cycle. Nat Cell Biol 2005; 7(9):916–917.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Adams AE, Botstein D, Drubin DG. Requirement of yeast fimbrin for actin organization and morphogenesis in vivo. Nature 1991; 354(6352):404–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Drubin DG, Miller KG, Botstein D. Yeast actin-binding proteins: evidence for a role in morphogenesis. J Cell Biol 1988; 107(6 Pt 2):2551–2561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Asakura T, Sasaki T, Nagano F et al. Isolation and characterization of a novel actin filament-binding protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Oncogene 1998; 16(1):121–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wu JQ, Bahler J, Pringle JR. Roles of a fimbrin and an alpha-actinin-like protein in fission yeast cell polarization and cytokinesis. Mol Biol Cell 2001; 12(4):1061–1077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Wu JQ, Pollard TD. Counting cytokinesis proteins globally and locally in fission yeast. Science 2005; 310(5746):310–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Karpova TS, McNally JG, Moltz SL et al. Assembly and function of the actin cytoskeleton of yeast: relationships between cables and patches. J Cell Biol 1998; 142(6):1501–1517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Zigmond SH. Formin-induced nucleation of actin filaments. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2004; 16(1):99–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Huckaba TM, Gay AC, Pantalena LF et al. Live cell imaging of the assembly, disassembly and actin cable-dependent movement of endosomes and actin patches in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol 2004; 167(3):519–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Harold FM. Force and compliance: rethinking morphogenesis in walled cells. Fungal Genet Biol 2002; 37(3):271–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Chappell TG, Warren G. A galactosyltransferase from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Cell Biol 1989; 109(6) Pt 1):2693–2702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Preuss D, Mulholland J, Franzusoff A et al. Characterization of the Saccharomyces Golgi complex through the cell cycle by immunoelectron microscopy. Mol Biol Cell 1992; 3(7):789–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Chang F, Peter M. Yeasts make their mark. Nat Cell Biol 2003; 5(4):294–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Yang HC, Pon LA. Actin cable dynamics in budding yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99(2):751–756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Huffaker TC, Thomas JH, Botstein D. Diverse effects of beta-tubulin mutations on microtubule formation and function. J Cell Biol 1988; 106(6):1997–2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sawin KE, Snaith HA. Role of microtubules and tealp in establishment and maintenance of fission yeast cell polarity. J Cell Sci 2004; 117(Pt 5):689–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sellers JR, Veigel C. Walking with myosin V. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2006; 18(1):68–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Johnston GC, Prendergast JA, Singer RA. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MYO2 gene encodes an essential myosin for vectorial transport of vesicles. J Cell Biol 1991; 113(3):539–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Govindan B, Bowser R, Novick P. The role of Myo2, a yeast class V myosin, in vesicular transport. J Cell Biol 1995; 128(6):1055–1068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Win TZ, Gachet Y, Mulvihill DP et al. Two type V myosins with non-overlapping functions in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Myo52 is concerned with growth polarity and cytokinesis, Myo51 is a component of the cytokinetic actin ring. J Cell Sci 2001; 114(Pt 1):69–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Schott D, Ho J, Pruyne D et al. The COOH-terminal domain of Myo2p, a yeast myosin V, has a direct role in secretory vesicle targeting. J Cell Biol 1999; 147(4):791–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mulvihill DP, Edwards SR, Hyams JS. A critical role for the type V myosin, Myo52, in septum deposition and cell fission during cytokinesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 2006; 63(3):149–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Schott DH, Collins RN, Bretscher A. Secretory vesicle transport velocity in living cells depends on the myosin-V lever arm length. J Cell Biol 2002; 156(1):35–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hill KL, Catlett NL, Weisman LS. Actin and myosin function in directed vacuole movement during cell division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol 1996; 135(6 Pt 1):1535–1549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Takizawa PA, Sil A, Swedlow JR et al. Actin-dependent localization of an RNA encoding a cell-fate determinant in yeast. Nature 1997; 389(6646):90–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Long RM, Singer RH, Meng X et al. Mating type switching in yeast controlled by asymmetric localization of ASH1 mRNA. Science 1997; 277(5324):383–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rossanese OW, Reinke CA, Bevis BJ et al. A role for actin, Cdc1p and Myo2p in the inheritance of late Golgi elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol 2001; 153(1):47–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hoepfner D, van den Berg M, Philippsen P et al. A role for Vps 1p, actin and the Myo2p motor in peroxisome abundance and inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol 2001; 155(6):979–990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Estrada P, Kim J, Coleman J et al. Myo4p and She3p are required for cortical ER inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol 2003; 163(6):1255–1266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Theesfeld CL, Irazoqui JE, Bloom K et al. The role of actin in spindle orientation changes during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle. J Cell Biol 1999; 146(5):1019–1032.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Yin H, Pruyne D, Huffaker TC et al. Myosin V orientates the mitotic spindle in yeast. Nature 2000; 406(6799):1013–1015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Beach DL, Thibodeaux J, Maddox P et al. The role of the proteins Kar9 and Myo2 in orienting the mitotic spindle of budding yeast. Curr Biol 2000; 10(23):1497–1506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hwang E, Kusch J, Barral Y et al. Spindle orientation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the transport of microtubule ends along polarized actin cables. J Cell Biol 2003; 161(3):483–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Simon VR, Karmon SL, Pon LA. Mitochondrial inheritance: cell cycle and actin cable dependence of polarized mitochondrial movements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 1997; 37(3):199–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Boldogh IR, Yang HC, Nowakowski WD et al. Arp2/3 complex and actin dynamics are required for actin-based mitochondrial motility in yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98(6):3162–3167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mulvihill DP, Pollard PJ, Win TZ et al. Myosin V-mediated vacuole distribution and fusion in fission yeast. Curr Biol 2001; 11(14):1124–1127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Gachet Y, Tournier S, Millar JB et al. Mechanism controlling perpendicular alignment of the spindle to the axis of cell division in fission yeast. EMBO J 2004; 23(6):1289–1300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Catlett NL, Duex JE, Tang F et al. Two distinct regions in a yeast myosin-V tail domain are required for the movement of different cargoes. J Cell Biol 2000; 150(3):513–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Takizawa PA, Vale RD. The myosin motor, Myo4p, binds Ash1 mRNA via the adapter protein, She3p. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000; 97(10):5273–5278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Bohl F, Kruse C, Frank A et al. She2p, a novel RNA-binding protein tethers ASH1 mRNA to the Myo4p myosin motor via She3p. EMBO J 2000; 19(20):5514–5524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Itoh T, Watabe A, Toh EA et al. Complex formation with Ypt11p, a rab-type small GTPase, is essential to facilitate the function of Myo2p, a class V myosin, in mitochondrial distribution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 2002; 22(22):7744–7757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ishikawa K, Catlett NL, Novak JL et al. Identification of an organelle-specific myosin V receptor. J Cell Biol 2003; 160(6):887–897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Tang F, Kauffman EJ, Novak JL et al. Regulated degradation of a class V myosin receptor directs movement of the yeast vacuole. Nature 2003; 422(6927):87–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Itoh T, Toh EA, Matsui Y. Mmr1p is a mitochodrial factor for Myo2p-dependent inheritance of mitochondria in the budding yeast. EMBO J 2004; 23(13):2520–2530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pashkova N, Catlett NL, Novak JL et al. Myosin V attachment to cargo requires the tight association of two functional subdomains. J Cell Biol 2005; 168(3):359–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Pashkova N, Catlett NL, Novak JL et al. A point mutation in the cargo-binding domain of myosin V affects its interaction with multiple cargoes. Eukaryot Cell 2005; 4(4):787–798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Pashkova N, Jin Y, Ramaswamy S et al. Structural basis for myosin V discrimination between distinct cargoes. EMBO J 2006; 25(4):693–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Fagarasanu A, Fagarasanu M, Eitzen GA et al. The peroxisomal membrane protein Inp2p is the peroxisome-specific receptor for the myosin V motor Myo2p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dev Cell 2006; 10(5):587–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Reck-Peterson SL, Tyska MJ, Novick PJ et al. The yeast class V myosins, Myo2p and Myo4p, are non-processive actin-based motors. J Cell Biol 2001; 153(5):1121–1126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Balasubramanian MK, Bi E, Glotzer M. Comparative analysis of cytokinesis in budding yeast, fission yeast and animal cells. Curr Biol 2004; 14(18):R806–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wolfe BA, Gould KL. Split decisions: coordinating cytokinesis in yeast. Trends Cell Biol 2005; 15(1):10–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Faty M, Fink M, Barral Y. Septins: a ring to part mother and daughter. Curr Genet 2002; 41(3):123–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Longtine MS, Bi E. Regulation of septin organization and function in yeast. Trends Cell Biol 2003; 13(8):403–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Versele M, Thorner J. Some assembly required: yeast septins provide the instruction manual. Trends Cell Biol 2005; 15(8):414–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sohrmann M, Fankhauser C, Brodbeck C et al. The dmf1/mid1 gene is essential for correct positioning of the division septum in fission yeast. Genes Dev 1996; 10(21):2707–2719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Santos B, Snyder M. Targeting of chitin synthase 3 to polarized growth sites in yeast requires Chs5p and Myo2p. J Cell Biol 1997; 136(1):95–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    VerPlank L, Li R. Cell cycle-regulated trafficking of Chs2 controls actomyosin ring stability during cytokinesis. Mol Biol Cell 2005; 16(5):2529–2543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Watts FZ, Shiels G, Orr E. The yeast MYO1 gene encoding a myosin-like protein Srrequired for cell division. EMBO J 1987; 6(11):3499–3505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Rodriguez JR, Paterson BM. Yeast myosin heavy chain mutant: maintenance of the cell type specific budding pattern and the normal deposition of chitin and cell wall components requires an intact myosin heavy chain gene. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 1990; 17(4):301–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Schmidt M, Bowers B, Varma A et al. In budding yeast, contraction of the actomyosin ring and formation of the primary septum at cytokinesis depend on each other. J Cell Sci 2002; 115(Pt 2):293–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Tolliday N, Pitcher M, Li R. Direct evidence for a critical role of myosin II in budding yeast cytokinesis and the evolvability of new cytokinetic mechanisms in the absence of myosin II. Mol Biol Cell 2003; 14(2):798–809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lippincott J, Li R. Sequential assembly of myosin II, an IQGAP-like protein and filamentous actin to a ring structure involved in budding yeast cytokinesis. J Cell Biol 1998; 140(2):355–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kitayama C, Sugimoto A, Yamamoto M. Type II myosin heavy chain encoded by the myo2 gene composes the contractile ring during cytokinesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Cell Biol 1997; 137(6):1309–1319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    May KM, Watts FZ, Jones N et al. Type II myosin involved in cytokinesis in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 1997; 38(4):385–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Motegi F, Nakano K, Kitayama C et al. Identification of Myo3, a second type-II myosin heavy chain in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. FEBS Lett 1997; 420(2–3):161–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Bezanilla M, Forsburg SL, Pollard TD. Identification of a second myosin-II in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Myp2p is conditionally required for cytokinesis. Mol Biol Cell 1997; 8(12):2693–2705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    McCollum D, Balasubramanian MK, Pelcher LE et al. Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc4+ gene encodes a novel EF-hand protein essential for cytokinesis. J Cell Biol 1995; 130(3):651–660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Epp JA, Chant J. An IQGAP-related protein controls actin-ring formation and cytokinesis in yeast. Curr Biol 1997; 7(12):921–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Eng K, Naqvi NI, Wong KC et al. Rng2p, a protein required for cytokinesis in fission yeast, is a component of the actomyosin ring and the spindle pole body. Curr Biol 1998; 8(11):611–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Naqvi NI, Eng K, Gould KL et al. Evidence for F-actin-dependent and-independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast. EMBO J 1999; 18(4):854–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Shannon KB, Li R. The multiple roles of Cyk1p in the assembly and function of the actomyosin ring in budding yeast. Mol Biol Cell 1999; 10(2):283–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Liu J, Tang X, Wang H et al. The localization of the integral membrane protein Cps1p to the cell division site is dependent on the actomyosin ring and the septation-inducing network in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Biol Cell 2002; 13(3):989–1000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Itoh T, Erdmann KS, Roux A et al. Dynamin and the actin cytoskeleton cooperatively regulate plasma membrane invagination by BAR and F-BAR proteins. Dev Cell 2005; 9(6):791–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Tsujita K, Suetsugu S, Sasaki N et al. Coordination between the actin cytoskeleton and membrane deformation by a novel membrane tubulation domain of PCH proteins is involved in endocytosis. J Cell Biol 2006; 172(2):269–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Carnahan RH, Gould KL. The PCH family protein, Cdc15p, recruits two F-actin nucleation pathways to coordinate cytokinetic actin ring formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Cell Biol 2003; 162(5):851–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kamei T, Tanaka K, Hihara T et al. Interaction of Bnr1p with a novel Src homology 3 domain-containing Hof1p. Implication in cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 1998; 273(43):28341–28345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Wachtler V, Huang Y, Karagiannis J et al. Cell cycle-dependent roles for the FCH-domain protein Cdc15p in formation of the actomyosin ring in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Biol Cell 2006; 17(7):3254–3266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lippincott J, Li R. Dual function of Cyk2, a cdc15/PSTPIP family protein, in regulating actomyosin ring dynamics and septin distribution J Cell Biol 1998; 143(7):1947–1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Wu JQ, Kuhn JR, Kovar DR et al. Spatial and temporal pathway for assembly and constriction of the contractile ring in fission yeast cytokinesis. Dev Cell 2003; 5(5):723–734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Ayscough KR, Stryker J, Pokala N et al. High rates of actin filament turnover in budding yeast and roles for actin in establishment and maintenance of cell polarity revealed using the actin inhibitor latrunculin-A. J Cell Biol 1997; 137(2):399–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Moseley JB, Goode BL. The yeast actin cytoskeleton: from cellular function to biochemical mechanism. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2006; 70(3):605–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Liu J, Taylor DW, Krementsova EB et al. Three-dimensional structure of the myosin V inhibited state by cryoelectron tomography. Nature 2006; 442(7099):208–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Thirumurugan K, Sakamoto T, Hammer JA 3rd et al. The cargo-binding domain regulates structure and activity of myosin 5. Nature 2006; 442(7099):212–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Pruyne
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Biology and GeneticsCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations