Having selected the sample in terms of its size (Chapter 2), ­support (Chapter 4), and the ways it may, if necessary, be embedded (Chapter 5), it is now necessary to consider how best to expose the relevant parts of a sample for microscopy and analysis. Scanning electron microscopy is all about examining surfaces. In addition to examining the outside of a sample, it is frequently necessary to obtain additional information about the interior. We may consider surfaces under three categories:
  1. 1.

    The intact natural surface of the specimen

  2. 2.

    The intact natural surface of a discrete internal component of the selected specimen, i.e., a failed engine component, an animal liver, a crystal inside a rock geode, pollen grains inside a flower, ketchup in a hamburger, and the components that make up microelectronics and integrated circuits

  3. 3.

    The general interior of the selected specimen


Intact natural surfaces should need little further exposure, although they require attachment and...


Plasma Etching Abrasive Material Sharp Knife High Energy Beam Soft Specimen 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cambridge Analytical MicroscopyUK

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