Advertisement

Sapphire pp 189-288 | Cite as

Crystal Growth Methods

  • Elena R. Dobrovinskaya
  • Leonid A. Lytvynov
  • Valerian Pishchik
Chapter
Part of the Micro- and Opto-Electronic Materials, Structures, and Systems book series (MOEM)

Abstract

Sapphire can be grown from the gaseous, liquid, and solid phases. An ample literature devoted to the methods of obtaining sapphire from different media contains data on the theory and practice of growing the crystal. Our task is to arm the readers with the logic to choose the most suitable method. This logic is based on the physical–chemical essence of the growth processes and on the peculiarities of a particular method

Keywords

Crystal Growth Grown Crystal Crystallization Front Czochralski Method Sapphire Crystal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Vil’ke K.-T. Crystal Growth, Leningrad 1977. Nedra. [in Russian].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lodiz R.A., Parker R.L. Crystal Growth. Mir, Moscow. 1974 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bakly. Crystal Growth. Inostr. Lit., Moscow 1954 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kuznetsov V.D. Crystals and Crystallization. Goslitizdat, Moscow. 1954 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schaffer P.S. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 1965. 48.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Langham E.J., Mason B. J. Proc. Roy. Soc. 1958. 247A. p. 493.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Price P. B. J. Appl. Phys. 1961. 32. p. 1764.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Frank F.C. J. Acta Met. 1958. 6. p. 103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sears G.W. Acta Met. 1955. 3. p 361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sears G.W. Acta Met. 1955. 3. p. 367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sears G.W. Acta Met. 1956. 4. p.268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gomer R. J. Chem. Phys. 1958. 8. p. 457.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ruth V., Hirth J.P. The Kinetics of Diffusion Controlled Whisker Growth. AD43497, No. 495(26), 1964.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Webb W.W., Dragsford R.D., Forgeng W.D. Appl. Phys. Rev. 1957. 28. p. 498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Webb W.W., Dragsford R.D., Forgeng W.D. J. Appl. Phys. 1958. 29. p. 814.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chanda G.K., Trigunayat G.C. Crystal Growth, Proc. of an Int. Conf. Pergamon, New York. 1967.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Webb W.W., Forgeng W.D. J. Appl. Phys. 1957. 28. p. 12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brenner S.S. J. Appl. Phys. 1962. 33. p. 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tombs N.C., Welch A.J.E. J. Iron Steel Inst. 1952. 172. p. 69.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Feingold E., Gatti A. TR R65SD11. General Electric Space Sci. Lab. 1965.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barber D.J. Phil. Mag. 1964. 10. p. 103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Papkov V.S., Berezhkova G.V. Kristallografia. 1964. 9. p. 442 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cairpbell W. B. Chem. Eng. Progr. 1966. 62. p. 3.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goodman C.H.L. (editor). Crystal Growth. Theory and Techniques. Plenum Press, London, New York. 1974. p. 147.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kaldys E. Crystal Growth. Theory and Techniques . Mir, Moscow. 1977. Vol.1. pp. 75–243 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tanenbaum M. Solid State Physics. V.6. Methods of Experimental Physics. Academic Press, New York. 1961. p. 86.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chirvinsky P.P. Artificial Preparation of Minerals in XXth Century. Kiev. pp. 1903–1906 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yanovsky V.K., Voroshkova L.A., Koptsik V.A. Kristallografia. 1970. 15.2 pp. 362–366 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lobachev A.N., Demianets L.N., Kuzmina I.P., Emelianova E.N. J. Crystal Growth. 1972. 13/14. pp. 540–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kuznetsov V.A., Lobachov A.N. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Crystals, . 1968. p. 1972 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Butuzov V.P., Lobachev A.N. Rost Kristallov. 1972. 9. pp. 13–24 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Demyanets L.N., Lobachev A.N. Study of Crystallization Processes in Hydrothermal Conditions, Nauka, Moscow. 1970. pp. 7–28 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Laudise R.A., Nielsen J.W. Solid State Physics, Advances in Research and Applications. Academic Press, New York. 1961. 12. pp. 149–222.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Laudise R.A., Kolb E.D. Endeavour. 1969. 28. p. 114.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Laudise R.A., Ballman A.A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1958. 80. pp. 2655–2657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Monchamp R.R., Puttbach R.C. ASD Project#8-–132. AF Contract 33(657) 10508. 1964.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ganeev I.G., Kazurov B.K., Karaulnik E.N. Crystallization Kinetics and Mechanism, Minsk, 1969. pp. 399–407 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bryzgalov A.N., Musatov V.V., Proc. of 6th Internat. Confer. Crystal Growth and Heat and Mass Transfer, Obninsk, . 2005. pp. 315–316, [in Russian].Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bunk H. Z.Dt. Gemmol. Ges. 1977. Bd.26. S.170–S.172.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Timofeeva B.A., Voskanyan R.A. Kristallografia. 1963. 8. N2b. pp. 293–296 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kuznetsov V.A., Lobachov A.N., Shternberg A.A. Kristallografia. 1962. 7. N1. pp. 114–120 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lingart Yu.K., Dr. Sci. Thesis, M. 1990. p. 486 pp [in Russian].Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lingart Yu.K., Petrov V.A., Tikhonova N.A. Thermal Physics of High Temperatures. 1982. 20. Part 1. pp. 872–880; Part.11. pp. 1085–1092 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Maurakh M.A., Mitin B.S. Liquid High-Melting Oxides. Metallurgiya, Moscow. 1979. 287pp [in Russian].Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Osiko V.V. Laser Materials. Nauka, Moscow. 2002. p. 393 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kulikov I.S. Thermal Dissociation of Compounds. Nauka, Moscow. 1966 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sperrow E.M., Sess R.D. Teploobmen Izlucheniem. Energiya, Leningrad. 1971. p. 182 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kulikov I.S. Thermodynamic Dissociation of Compounds. Metallurgiya, Moscow. 1966 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Katrich N.P., Budnikov A.T., Krivonogov S.I. Functional Materials. 2006. 13(1). p. 44–53.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Verneuil A. Ann. Chem. Phys. 1904. 8. p. 320.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Litvinov L.A. All about Ruby, Kharkov, Prapor. 1991. p. 150pp [in Russian].Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Litvinov L.A. in: Book of Lectures Notes. Second International, School on Crystal Growth Technology, Japan. 2000. p. 666.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Litvinov L.A. Influence of Technology Factors and Apparatuses on Quality of Ruby. Institute of Chemical Engineering. Dr. Phil. (Eng.), Moskva, 1972 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Falckenberg R. J. Cryst. Growth. 1975. 29.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Adamski J.A. J. Appl. Phys. 1965. 36. pp. 1784–1786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bauer W.H., Field W.G. The Art and Science of Growing Crystals. Wiley, New York. 1963. 398p.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    USSR Authors’ Cert. 500145, 1976.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Klassen-Neklyudova M.V., Bagdasarova Kh. S. Ruby and Sapphire. Nauka, Moscow. 1974. p. 235 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kinloch D.R., Birchenall C.E. Ruby and Sapphire. 1973. Bd.19. pp. 105–108.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Holden F.A., Sedlacek R. Pribory dla Nauchn. Issled. 1963. 6. pp. 8–9 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bagdasarov Kh.S., Dyachenko V.V., Kevorkov A.M., Khokhlov A.A., in: Crystal Growth: Sci. Commun. Coll. Rost Kristallov. M., 1980. pp. 314–320 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Takagi K., Isai H. J. Mater. Sci. 1977. 12. C.517–C.521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Keck P.H. Rev. Sci. Instr. 1954. 25. p. 298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Reed T.B. J. Appl. Phys. 1961. 32. p. 2534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Pfann W.G. Zone Melting. Wiley, New York. 1966.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Heywang W., Ziegler G. Zs. f. Naturforsch. 1954. 9a. p. 561.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Heywang W. Zs. f. Naturforsch. 1956. 11a. p. 238.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Class W., Nestor H.R., Murray G.T. Crystal Growth. Pergamon, New York. 1967. p. 75.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Timofeev N.I. et al.: Proc. of 1st Intern. Conf. on Markets of Glass, Single Crystals and Precious Metal Equip. 2001,. Veliky Novgorod. pp. 131–134 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Golubtsov I.V., Nesmeyanov A.N. Elektrotermia. 1969. 86. pp. 41–42 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kostopmarov D.V., Bagdasarov Kh.S., Kobzareva S.A. et al., in: Abstr. of XI-th Nat. Conf on Cryst.al Growth, Moskva. 2006. p. 217 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kyropoulos S. Zs. Phys. 1930. Bd.63. S.849–S.854.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Musatov M.I. Heat-Resistant Dielectrics. Atomizdat, Moscow. 1980. pp. 117–118 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Musatov M.I.: Book of Lectures of 1st International. School on Crystal Growth Technolog, Switzerland 1998. p. 624.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ivanov V.I. Electronnaya Tekhnika., Ser. Mater. 1978. 5. p. 55 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Viechnicki D., Schmidt F. J. Cryst. Growth. 1971. 11. pp. 345–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Harris D.C. Pros. SPIE, vol. 5078. Window and Dome Technologies 111. 2003. p. 1.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Schmid F., Khattak C.P., Felt D.M. Am. Ceramic Soc. Bull. 1994. 73(2). p. 39.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Khattak C.P., Schmid F., Smith M.B. // Proc. SPIE, vol. 3060. Window and Dome Technologies and Materials V. 1997. p. 250.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Schmid F., Khattak C.P., Rogers H.H. Proc. SPIE, vol. 3705. Window and Dome Technologies and Materials 1. 1999. p. 70.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Khattak C.P., Guggenheim P.J., Schmid F. Proc. SPIE, vol. 5078. Window and Dome Technologies 111. 2003. p. 47.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Guzik S., Oblakovsky Ya. Artificial Single Crystals. Metallurgiya, Moscow. 1975 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bagdasarov Kh.S., Problems of Synthesis of Large High-Melting Optical Single Crystals. Part 2. In in book: 4th All-Union Confer. on Crystal Growing and Structure Erevan, . 1972. pp. 6–25 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Laverton W.F. J. Appl. Phys. 1959. 29. pp. 1241–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Aleksandrov V.I., Osiko V.V., Tatarintsev V.V. Pribory i Tekhn. Eksper. 1970. 5. pp. 222–225 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Aleksandrov V.I., Osiko V.V., Prokhorov A.M., Tatarintsev V.M. Usp. Khim. 1978. 47. pp. 385–427 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Osiko V.V. Laser Materials. Nauka, Moscow. 2002. 384 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bridgman P.V. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 1925. 60. pp. 303–383.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Stockbarger D.C. Rev. Sci. Instr. 1936. 7. p. 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Stockbarger D.C. Disc. Farad. Soc. 1949. 5. pp. 294–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tammann G. Metallography. Elsevier, New York. 1925. p. 26.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Obreimov N.V., Shubnikov A.V. Zs. Phys. 1924. 25. p. 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Buckley H.E. Crystal Growth. Wiley, New York. 1951.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    A. A. Chernov, E. I. Givargizov, Kh. S. Bagdasarov, Modern Crystallography Moscow, Nauka. 1980. Vol.3. p. 407 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    USSR Author’s Cert. 276921, (1968); 566170 (1972); US.Pat. 4303465, (1981); Kh.S. Bagdasarov et al. Ruby and Sapphire // M.: Nauka. 1974. pp. 20–35 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Arutyunyan V.M. et al., in: Abstr. of IX-th Nat. Conf on Crystal. Growth M., 2000. p. 475 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Dubovskaya V.M., Egorycheva O.A., Smirnova S.A., in: Abstr. of X-th Nat. Conf on Crystal. Growth, Moscow., 2002. p. 222 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ukrainian Patent. 18923 A, (1997).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Dan’ko A. Ya., Nizhankovsky S.V., Kanischev V.N. Functional Materials. 2006. 13(3). pp. 426–431.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    100. Puzikov V.M., Dan’ko A.Ya. in: Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics and Optoelectronics, Kiev. 2000. Vol.3, pp. 185–190 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Bessonova T.S., Stanislavsky M.P., . Khaimov-Malkov V.Ya., in: Problems of Atomic Science and Engineering, . 1974. pp. 74–80 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dan’ko A.Ya., Sidelnikova N.S. Functional Materials. 2001. 8. p. 462.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kvapil J., Perner B., Sulovsky J., Kvapil Jos. Kristall and Technik. 1973. Bd.8. S.247–S.251 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dan’ko A.Ya., Sidelnikova N.S. et al. Functional Materials. 2003. 10.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Dan’ko A.Ya., Sidelnikova N.S. Functional Materials. 2001. 8. p. 175.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Dan’ko A.Ya., Sidelnikova N.S. et al. in: Functional Materials for Science and Engineering. 2001. p. 200 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ukrainian Patent. 18923A, (1997).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Stepanov A.V. Izv. AN SSSR, Ser. Fiz. 1969. 33. pp. 1946–1953 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Stepanov A.V. Zh. Tekhn. Fiz. 1959. 29. pp. 381–393 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Gomperz E.V. Zeitchr. fuer Phys. 1922. Bd.8. S.184.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kapitza P. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 1928. Ser.A. 119. No. A782. p. 358.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Chalmers D., LaBelle H.E., Miavsky A.J. J. Cryst. Growth. 1972. 13/14. p. 84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    US Patent. 3915662, (1975).Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Schwuftke G.H. Phys. Status Solidi (a). 1977. 43. p. 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Surek T., Coriel S.R., Chalmers B. Crystal Growth. Moscow, Nauka. 1980. Vol13. p. 180 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Goltsmann B.M. Growing of Semiconductor Single Crystals. 1963. 5. p. 32 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kurlov V.N., Belenko S.V. J. Cryst. Growth. 1998. 191. p. 779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Moskalyov A.V., Bakholdin S.I., Krymov V.M., Antonov P.I., in: Abstr. of IX Nat. Confer. on Cryst.al Growth M., 2000. p. 192 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Antonov P.I., Bakholdin S.I., Krymov V.M. Physics of Crystallization, M. Fizmatizd. 2002. P 213 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Shochet O., Kassner K., Ben-Jacob E. Physica A. 1992. 187. p. 87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Goriletsky V.I., Grinyov B.V., Zaslavsky B.G. et al., Crystal Growth: Alkali Halides Kharkov, Akta. 2002. p. 22 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ukrainian Patent. 36892A, (2001).Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Litvinov L.A., Tkachenko S.A., in: Abstr. of IX Nat. Confer. on Cryst.al Growth Moskva, . 2000. p. 482 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Tatarchenko V.A. Stable Crystal Growth. Moscow, Nauka. 1988 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Dobrovinskaya E.R., Litvinov L.A., Pischik V.V. Izv AN SSSR, Ser. Fiz. 1976. 40. pp. 1330–1331 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Dobrovinskaya E.R., Litvinov L.A., Pishchik V.V. Krist. und Tech. 1978. Bd.13. pp. 289–292 [in Russian].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    La Bell H.E. Mat. Res. Bull. 1971. 6. pp. 581–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Sehwutike G.H. Phys. Stat. Sol. (a). 1977. 43. pp. 43–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Bell A.E. RSA Rev. 1977. 38. pp. 109–138.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Bleil C.E. J. Cryst. Growth. 1969. 5. pp. 99–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Groisman A.F., Zagumenny A.I., Provorotov M.V., Maier A.A. in: Abstr. of VI-th All-Union Conf. Cryst. Growth. Erevan. 1985.Vol.1. p. 206 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Epelbaum B., Fukuda T. Abstr. 12th Int. Conf. on Crystal Growth. Israel, 1998. p. 8.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Antonov P.I., Nosov Yu.G., Nikanorov S.P., Abstr. 12th Int. Conf. Crystal Growth. Israel, 1998.ibid. pp. 63–64.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Borodin V.A., Steriopolo T.A., Tatarchenko V.A. Proc. Europ. Meet. on Cryst.al Growth Mater. for Electr. Prague, . 1982. p. 320.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Borodin V.A., Steriopolo T.A., Tatarchenko V.A., Yalovets T.N. Izv. AN SSSR, Ser. Fiz. 1983. 47. pp. 368–374 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Borodin V.A., Steriopolo T.A., Tatarchenko V.A. in: Proc. of All-Union Conf. on Production of Profiled Crystals and Workpieces by Stepanov Technique and Use Thereof in National Economy Leningrad., 1986. p. 72 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Dobrovinskaya E.R. et al. Pat.ent USSR. 499889, 1974,. Dobrovinskaya E.R. et al.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Nikolaev V.I. et al., in: Abstr. of IX Nat. Confer. on Crystal. Growth, Moskva. 2000. p. 24 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Litvinov L.A., Pishchik V.V., in: Proc. of All-Union Conf. on Production of Profiled Crystals and Workpieces by Stepanov Technique and Use Thereof in National Economy, Leningrad. 1986. p. 214 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Locher J.W., Bates H.E., Jones C.D., Zanella S.A. Proc. SPIE. 2005. 5786. pp. 147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bates H. E., Jones C.D., Locher J.W. Proc. SPIE. 2005. 5786. pp. 165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kurlov V.N. J. Cryst. Growth. 1999. 179. p. 168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Gurzhiyants P.A., Kurlov V.N., Rossolko S.N., in: Abstr. of IX Nat. Confer. on Crystal. Growth, Moskva. 2000. p. 26 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Kurlov V.N., Epelbaum B.M. J. Cryst. Growth. 1999. 179. p. 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lacombe P., Berhezan A Am. Soc. of Metals. 1951. p. 211.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Burke J.E. Met. Tech. T. P. 1948. p. 2472. Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Burke J.E. Trans. AIME. 1949. 180. p. 73.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Bragg W.L. Proc. Phys. Soc. London. 1940. 52. p. 54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Burgers J.M. Proc. Phys. Soc. London. 1940. 52. p. 23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Burgers W.G. Physica. 1934. 1. p. 561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Shockley W., Read W.T. Phys. Rev. 1950. 78. p. 275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Lucke K. Z. Metallk. 1961. Bd.52. S.1.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Stuwe H.P. Z. Metallk. 1961. Bd.52. S.34.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Dunn C.G., Daniels F.W. Trans. AIME. 1951. 191. p. 147.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Dobrovinskaya E.R. et al. Patent USSR. 413710, 1972.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Dobrovinskaya E.R. et al. Patent USSR 499889, 1972.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elena R. Dobrovinskaya
    • 1
  • Leonid A. Lytvynov
    • 2
  • Valerian Pishchik
    • 3
  1. 1.Rubicon TechnologyFranklin ParkUSA
  2. 2.Scientific Technological ComplexInstitute for Single CrystalsKharkovUkraine
  3. 3.Gavish, Ltd.Sapphire ProductsOmerIsrael

Personalised recommendations