Fuel cell development and commercialization advances every year to new frontiers and is brought to the next level by R&D teams in academia, institutes, and industries throughout the entire world. However, R&D programs offered by the funding agencies are setting the scene for the scientists and engineers working on the technology on a daily basis. This includes not only funds to perform the developmental work but also formulating technical targets and, most importantly, teaming up R&D groups from different institutions to create joint developmental efforts. Besides national and local governments and institutions whose smaller-scale funding programs are sometimes not as visible, the main developmental programs are offered by the three main funding agencies, viz., the European Union, the US Department of Energy (US DOE), and the Japanese New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). All three organizations are running multimillion euro programs to advance fuel cell development. In the USA, the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program (US DOE; http:// www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/about.html) is funding the development of fuel cell components, stacks, and systems and hydrogen safety and infrastructure. Within the European Commission's Framework Programmes 6 and 7, projects such as AutoBrane (automotive high-temperature membrane) or NextGenCell are funded, just to name a few. Especially the NextGenCell program needs some consideration since it is the first fuel cell program jointly funded and organized by the European Union and the US DOE in order to develop MEAs, stacks, and stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems in a collaborative effort from development institutions on both sides of the Atlantic (https://www. hfpeurope.org/uploads/2233/3515/NextGenCell_ReviewDays07_10-11OCT2007. pdf). Finally, the Japanese NEDO (http://www.nedo.go.jp) is focusing its activities on the funding of fuel cell activities for both stationary and automotive power systems , which is outlined in more detail in the chapter “Durability Targets for Stationary and Automotive Applications in Japan.“
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