Regulation of Secondary Metabolism by Jasmonate Hormones
The biosynthesis of many different types of secondary metabolites that serve defensive functions in different plant species is regulated by hormones belonging to the group of jasmonate compounds. Regulation acts at the level of transcription of structural genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Here we review recent insights into the mechanisms of signal transduction initiated by jasmonates leading to the activation of transcription factors. We present models for jasmonate signal transduction regulating tobacco alkaloid biosynthesis and terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus. The models propose that perception of a bioactive jasmonate derivative by the receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) results in the degradation of Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins. Since these JAZ proteins repress the activity of the basic-Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factor MYC2, MYC2 then activates the expression of genes encoding certain members of the APETALA2/Ethylene Response Factor (AP2/ERF) family of transcription factors, which in turn activate the expression of alkaloid biosynthesis genes.
KeywordsJasmonic Acid Alkaloid Biosynthesis Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Jasmonate Biosynthesis Nicotine Biosynthesis
HZ was supported by the Research Council for Earth and Life Sciences (ALW) with financial aid from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO; grant # 812.06.002). The unpublished work on CrMYC2 was done in collaboration with Sabah Hedhili, Guillaume Chatel, Martial Pré and Pascal Gantet from the François Rabelais University in Tours, France. The unpublished work on the CrJAZ proteins was done in collaboration with Laurens Pauwels and Alain Goossens from the Department of Plant Systems Biology at Ghent University in Ghent, Belgium.
- Goossens A, Häkkinen ST, Laakso I, Seppänen-Laakso T, Biondi S, De Sutter V, Lammertyn F, Nuutila AM, Söderlund H, Zabeau M, Inzé D, Oksman-Caldentey KM (2003) A functional genomics approach toward the understanding of secondary metabolism in plant cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 8595–8600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Katsir L, Chung HS, Koo AJ, Howe GA (2008a) Jasmonate signaling: a conserved mechanism of hormone sensing. Curr Opin Plant Biol, doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2003.10.071Google Scholar
- Li L, Zhao Y, McCaig BC, Wingerd BA, Wang J, Whalon ME, Pichersky E, Howe GA (2004) The tomato homolog of CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE1 is required for the maternal control of seed maturation, jasmonate-signaled defense responses, and glandular trichome development. Plant Cell 16: 126–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mandaokar A, Thines B, Shin B, Lange BM, Choi G, Koo YJ, Yoo YJ, Choi YD, Choi G, Browse J (2006) Transcriptional regulators of stamen development in Arabidopsis identified by transcriptional profiling. Plant J 46: 984–1008Google Scholar
- Melotto M, Mecey C, Niu Y, Chung HS, Katsir L, Yao J, Zeng W, Thines B, Staswick P, Browse J, Howe G, He SY (2008) A critical role of two positively charged amino acids in the Jas motif of Arabidopsis JAZ proteins in mediating coronatine- and jasmonoyl isoleucine-dependent interaction with the COI1 F-box protein. Plant J 55: 979–988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pré M, Sibéril Y, Memelink J, Champion A, Doireau P, Gantet P (2000) Isolation by the yeast one-hybrid system of cDNAs encoding transcription factors that bind to the G-box element of the strictosidine synthase gene promoter from Catha-ranthus roseus.Int J Bio-chrom 5: 229–244Google Scholar
- Rischer H, Oresic M, Seppänen-Laakso T, Kataj-amaa M, Lammertyn F, Ardiles-Diaz W, Van Montagu MC, Inzé D, Oksman-Caldentey KM, Goossens A (2006) Gene-to-metabolite networks for terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseuscells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103: 5614–5619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vom Endt D, Soares e Silva M, Kijne JW, Pasquali G, Memelink J (2007) Identification of a bipartite jasmonate-responsive promoter element in the Catharanthus roseus ORCA3 transcription factor gene that interacts specifically with AT-hook DNA-binding proteins. Plant Physiol 144: 1680–1689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang L, Allmann S, Wu J, Baldwin IT (2008) Comp-arisons of LIPOXYGENASE3- and JASMONATE-RESISTANT4/6-silenced plants reveal that jasmonic acid and jasmonic acid-amino acid conjugates play different roles in herbivore resistance of Nicotiana attenuata.Plant Physiol 146: 904–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar