Floral Scents and Fruit Aromas Inspired by Nature

  • Florence Negre-Zakharov
  • Michael C. Long
  • Natalia Dudareva


Plants use floral and fruit volatiles as chemical cues to interact with their environment by attracting pollinators and seed dispersers, thus ensuring plant reproductive success. These volatiles also have a significant economic value as they contribute directly to the quality, and indirectly to the yield, of crops. The scent of flowers and the aroma of fruits are composed of complex mixtures of tens or sometimes hundreds of volatile compounds, many of which are found in both flowers and fruits. Arising from diverse biochemical pathways, floral and fruit volatiles can be divided into four major classes according to their metabolic origin: terpenoids, phenylpropanoids/benzenoids, fatty acid derivatives and amino acid derivatives. Recent discoveries of genes and enzymes responsible for the formation of volatile compounds have facilitated the investigation of the regulation of the biosynthesis of flower and fruit volatiles. Our growing understanding of the plant volatile network, together with pioneering attempts for fragrance modification, provide a platform for future metabolic engineering of floral scent and fruit aroma for plant improvement and human enjoyment.


Volatile Compound Tomato Fruit Volatile Emission Coniferyl Alcohol Terpene Synthases 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



aromatic amino acid decarboxylase


alcohol acyltransferase


adenosine triphosphate binding cassette


alcohol dehydrogenase


anthocyanin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase


allene oxide synthase


benzoic acid


benzoic acid carboxyl methyl transferase


acetyl-CoA:benzyl alcohol acetyltransferase


benzyl alcohol/phenylethanol benzoyl transferase


benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase


cinnamic acid


carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase


coniferyl alcohol acyltransferase




3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate


deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase


dimethylallyl diphosphate


eugenol synthase


erythrose 4-phosphate


fructose 6-phosphate


farnesyl diphosphate


farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase




glucose 6-phosphate


gas chromatography coupled with electroantennogram detection


geraniol synthase


geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate


GGPP synthase


geranyl diphosphate


GPP synthase


anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/ benzoyltransferase


hydroperoxyde lyase


isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase


isoeugenol synthase


indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase


indole 3-glycerol phosphate


isopentenyl diphosphate


jasmonic acid carboxyl methyl transferase


(S)-linalool synthase




lipid transfer proteins




mevalonic acid


phenylacetaldehyde synthase


L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase


production of anthocyanin pigment 1






rose alcohol acyltransferase


strawberry alcohol acyltransferase


terpene synthase



Work in ND’s lab is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (grant numbers MCB-0615700 and MCB-0331333), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (grant numbers 2003–35318–13619 and 2005–35318–16207) and the Fred Gloeckner Foundation, Inc. Work in FNZ’s lab is supported by the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences at UC Davis and the California Melon Research Board.


  1. 1.
    Pichersky, E., et al. (2006) Biosynthesis of plant volatiles: Nature’s diversity and ingenuity. Science 311, 808–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jetter, R. (2006) Examination of the processes involved in the emission of scent volatiles from flowers. In Biology of Floral Scent (Dudareva, N., and Pichersky, E., eds), 125–143, CRC/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FLCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kessler, A., and Baldwin, I.T. (2001) Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature. Science 291, 2141–2144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kessler, A., and Halitschke, R. (2007) Specificity and complexity: the impact of herbivore-induced plant responses on arthropod community structure. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 10, 409–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Birkett, M.A., et al. (2003) Volatiles from whitefly-infested plants elicit a host-locating response in the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa. J. Chem. Ecol. 29, 1589–1600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rasmann, S., et al. (2005) Recruitment of entomopathogenic nematodes by insect-damaged maize roots. Nature 434, 732–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Reinhard, J., et al. (2004) Floral scents induce recall of navigational and visual memories in honeybees. J. Exp. Biol. 207, 4371–4381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wright, G.A., et al. (2005) Intensity and the ratios of compounds in the scent of snapdragon flowers affect scent discrimination by honeybees (Apis mellifera). J. Comp. Physiol. A -Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol 191, 105–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Knudsen, J.T., et al. (2006) Diversity and distribution of floral scent. Bot. Rev. 72, 1–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Andrews, E.S., et al. (2007) Pollinator and herbivore attraction to Cucurbita floral volatiles. J. Chem. Ecol. 33, 1682–1691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Theis, N. (2006) Fragrance of canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) attracts both floral herbivores and pollinators. J. Chem. Ecol. 32, 917–927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goff, S.A., and Klee, H.J. (2006) Plant volatile compounds: Sensory cues for health and nutritional value? Science 311, 815–819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Luft, S., et al. (2003) The use of olfaction in the foraging behaviour of the golden-mantled flying fox, Pteropus pumilus, and the greater musky fruit bat, Ptenochirus jagori (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae). Naturwissens-chaften 90, 84–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hodgkison, R., et al. (2007) Chemical ecology of fruit bat foraging behavior in relation to the fruit odors of two species of paleotropical bat-dispersed figs (Ficus hispida and Ficus scortechinii). J. Chem. Ecol. 33, 2097–2110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bolen, R.H., and Green, S.M. (1997) Use of olfactory cues in foraging by owl monkeys (Aotus nancymai) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). J. Comp. Psychol. 111, 152–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bicca-Marques, J.C., and Garber, P.A. (2004) Use of spatial, visual, and olfactory information during foraging in wild nocturnal and diurnal anthropoids: A field experiment comparing Aotus, Callicebus, and Saguinus. Am. J. Primatol. 62, 171–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Siemers, B.M., et al. (2007) Sensory basis of food detection in wild Microcebus murinus. Int. J. Primatol. 28, 291–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Frey, C. (2005) Natural flavors and fragrances: chemistry, analysis, and production. In Natural flavors and fragrances: Chemistry, Analysis, and Production (Frey, C., and Rouseff, R.L., eds), 3–19, American Chemical Society, Washington DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chandler, S., and Tanaka, Y. (2007) Genetic modification in floriculture. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 26, 169–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Waldron, K.W., et al. (2003) Plant cell walls and food quality. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 2, 101–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Acree, T., Arn, H. (2004) Flavornet and human odor space. Accessed 10 Jan. 2008
  22. 22.
    Knudsen, J.T., and Gershenzon, J. (2006) The chemical diversity of floral scent. In Biology of Floral Scent (Dudareva, N., and Pichersky, E., eds), 27–52, CRC/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nursten, H.E., and Williams, A.A. (1967) Fruit aromas – a survey of components identified. Chem. Indust. 12, 486–497Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Buttery, R.G., et al. (1971) Characterization of additional volatile components of tomato. J. Agric. Food Chem. 19, 524–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Petró-Turza, M. (1986) Flavor of tomato and tomato products. Food Rev. Int. 2, 309–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leahy, M.M., and Roderick, R.G. (1999) Fruit flavor biogenesis. In Flavor Chemistry: Thirty Years of Progress (Teranishi, R., et-al, eds), 275–285, Kluwer/Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tressl, R., et al. (1969) Gas chromatography of aroma constituents of bananas. Z. Nat B. 24, 781–783Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schreier, P., et al. (1976) Identification of volatile constituents from grapes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 24, 331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Klesk, K., et al. (2004) Aroma extract dilution analysis of cv. Meeker (Rubus idaeus L.) red raspberries from Oregon and Washington. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 5155–5161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Buttery, R.G., et al. (1987) Fresh tomato aroma volatiles – a quantitative study. J. Agric. Food Chem. 35, 540–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stockhorst, U., and Pietrowsky, R. (2004) Olfactory perception, communication, and the nose-to-brain pathway. Physiol. Behav. 83, 3–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vosshall, L.B. (2000) Olfaction in Drosophila. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 10, 498–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Carlsson, M.A., and Hansson, B.S. (2006) Detection and coding of flower volatiles in nectar-foraging insects. In Biology of Floral Scent (Dudareva, N., and Pichersky, E., eds), 243–262, CRC/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Henderson, A. (1986) A review of pollination studies in the Palmae. Bot. Rev. 52, 221–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Raguso, R.A., and Pichersky, E. (1995) Floral volatiles from Clarkia breweri and C. concinna (Onagraceae) – recent evolution of floral scent and moth pollination. Plant Syst. Evol. 194, 55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hoballah, M.E., et al. (2005) The composition and timing of flower odour emission by wild Petunia axillaris coincide with the antennal perception and nocturnal activity of the pollinator Manduca sexta. Planta 222, 141–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    McCaskill, D., and Croteau, R. (1995) Monoterpene and sesquiterpene biosynthesis in glandular trichomes of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita) rely exclusively on plastid-derived isopentenyl diphosphate. Planta 197, 49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Newman, J.D., and Chappell, J. (1999) Isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants: Carbon partitioning within the cytoplasmic pathway. Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 34, 95–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lichtenthaler, H.K. (1999) The 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol Plant Mol. Biol. 50, 47–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rohmer, M. (1999) The discovery of a mevalonate-independent pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria, algae and higher plants. Nat. Prod. Rep. 16, 565–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Eisenreich, W., et al. (1998) The deoxyxylulose phosphate pathway of terpenoid biosynthesis in plants and microorganisms. Chem. Biol. 5, R221-R233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Phillips, M.A., et al. (2008) The Arabidopsis thaliana type I isopentenyl diphosphate isomerases are targeted to multiple subcellular compartments and have overlapping functions in isoprenoid biosynthesis. Plant Cell 20, 677–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Poulter, C.D., and Rilling, H.C. (1981) Prenyl transferases and isomerase. In Biosynthesis of Isoprenoid Compounds (Porter, J.W., and Spurgeon, S.L., eds), 161–224, Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ogura, K., and Koyama, T. (1998) Enzymatic aspects of isoprenoid chain elongation. Chem. Rev. 98, 1263–1276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    McGarvey, D.J., and Croteau, R. (1995) Terpenoid metabolism. Plant Cell 7, 1015–1026PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Koyama, T., and Ogura, K. (1999) Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and prenyltransferases. In Comprehensive Natural Product Chemistry. Isoprenoids Including Carotenoids and Steroids (Cane, D.E., ed), 69–96, Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tholl, D., et al. (2004) Formation of monoterpenes in Antirrhinum majus and Clarkia breweri flowers involves heterodimeric geranyl diphosphate synthases. Plant Cell 16, 977–992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Burke, C.C., et al. (1999) Geranyl diphosphate synthase: Cloning, expression, and characterization of this prenyltransferase as a heterodimer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 13062–13067PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gershenzon, J., and Kreis, W. (1999) Biochemistry of terpenoids: Monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, sterols, cardiac glycosides and steroid saponins. In Biochemistry of Plant Secondary Metabolism (Wink, M., ed), 222–299, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wang, K., and Ohnuma, S. (1999) Chain-length determination mechanism of isoprenyl diphosphate synthases and implications for molecular evolution. Trends Biochem. Sci. 24, 445–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bouvier, F., et al. (2000) Molecular cloning of geranyl diphosphate synthase and compartmentation of monoterpene synthesis in plant cells. Plant J. 24, 241–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bick, J.A., and Lange, B.M. (2003) Metabolic cross talk between cytosolic and plastidial pathways of isoprenoid biosynthesis: unidirectional transport of intermediates across the chloroplast envelope membrane. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 415, 146–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schuhr, C.A., et al. (2003) Quantitative assessment of crosstalk between the two isoprenoid biosynthesis pathways in plants by NMR spectroscopy. Phytochemistry Reviews 2, 3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Laule, O., et al. (2003) Crosstalk between cytosolic and plastidial pathways of isoprenoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 6866–6871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hemmerlin, A., et al. (2003) Cross-talk between the cytosolic mevalonate and the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathways in Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cells. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 26666–26676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dudareva, N., et al. (2005) The nonmevalonate pathway supports both monoterpene and sesquiterpene formation in snapdragon flowers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 933–938PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wise, M.L., and Croteau, R. (1999) Monoterpene biosynthesis. In Comprehensive Natural Products Chemistry: Isoprenoids Including Carotenoids and Steroids (Cane, D.E., ed), 97–153, Pregamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cane, D.E. (1999) Sesquiterpene biosynthesis: Cyclization mechanisms. In Comprehensive Natural Products Chemistry. Isoprenoids Including Carotenoids and Steroids (Cane, D.E., ed), 155–200, Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bohlmann, J., et al. (1998) Plant terpenoid synthases: molecular biology and phylogenetic analysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 4126–4133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Martin, D.M., et al. (2004) Functional characterization of nine Norway spruce TPS genes and evolution of gymnosperm terpene synthases of the TPS-d subfamily. Plant Physiol. 135, 1908–1927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Steele, C.L., et al. (1998) Sesquiterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis) – Comparison of constitutive and wound-induced activities, and cDNA isolation, characterization and bacterial expression of δ-selinene synthase and γ-humulene synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 2078–2089PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Roeder, S., et al. (2007) Regulation of simultaneous synthesis of floral scent terpenoids by the 1,8-cineole synthase of Nicotiana suaveolens. Plant Mol. Biol. 65, 107–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tholl, D., et al. (2005) Two sesquiterpene synthases are responsible for the complex mixture of sesquiterpenes emitted from Arabidopsis flowers. Plant J. 42, 757–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bohlmann, J., et al. (2000) Terpenoid secondary metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana: cDNA cloning, characterization, and functional expression of a myrcene/(E)-β-ocimene synthase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 375, 261–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chen, F., et al. (2003) Biosynthesis and emission of terpenoid volatiles from Arabidopsis flowers. Plant Cell 15, 481–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dudareva, N., et al. (2003) (E)-β-ocimene and myrcene synthase genes of floral scent biosynthesis in snapdragon: Function and expression of three terpene synthase genes of a new terpene synthase subfamily. Plant Cell 15, 1227–1241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Trapp, S.C., and Croteau, R.B. (2001) Genomic organization of plant terpene synthases and molecular evolutionary implications. Genetics 158, 811–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Aubourg, S., et al. (2002) Genomic analysis of the terpenoid synthase (AtTPS) gene family of Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol. Genet. Genomics 267, 730–745PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dudareva, N., et al. (2004) Biochemistry of plant volatiles. Plant Physiol. 135, 1893–1902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bouwmeester, H.J., et al. (1998) Biosynthesis of the monoterpenes limonene and carvone in the fruit of caraway – I. Demonstration of enzyme activities and their changes with development. Plant Physiol. 117, 901–912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bouwmeester, H.J., et al. (1999) Cytochrome P-450 dependent (+)-limonene-6-hydroxylation in fruits of caraway (Carum carvi). Phytochemistry 50, 243–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Aharoni, A., et al. (2004) Gain and loss of fruit flavor compounds produced by wild and cultivated strawberry species. Plant Cell 16, 3110–3131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Shalit, M., et al. (2003) Volatile ester formation in roses. Identification of an acetyl-coenzyme A: Geraniol/citronellol acetyltransferase in developing rose petals. Plant Physiol. 131, 1868–1876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Luan, F., et al. (2005) Metabolism of geraniol in grape berry mesocarp of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Scheurebe: demonstration of stereoselective reduction, E/Z-isomerization, oxidation and glycosylation. Phytochemistry 66, 295–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Auldridge, M.E., et al. (2006) Characterization of three members of the Arabidopsis carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase family demonstrates the divergent roles of this multifunctional enzyme family. Plant J. 45, 982–993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Buttery, R.G., et al. (1990) Quantitative and sensory studies on tomato paste volatiles. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38, 336–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Winterhalter, P., and Rouseff, R.L. (2002) Carotenoid-derived aroma compounds: an introduction. In Carotenoid-derived aroma compounds (Winterhalter, P., and Rouseff, R.L., eds), 1–17, American Chemical Society, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Simkin, A.J., et al. (2004) The tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 genes contribute to the formation of the flavor volatiles β-ionone, pseudoionone, and geranylacetone. Plant J. 40, 882–892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Simkin, A.J., et al. (2004) Circadian regulation of the PhCCD1 carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase controls emission of β-Ionone, a fragrance volatile of petunia flowers. Plant Physiol. 136, 3504–3514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ibdah, M., et al. (2006) Functional characterization of CmCCD1, a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase from melon. Phytochemistry 67, 1579–1589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kapteyn, J., et al. (2007) Evolution of cinnamate/p-coumarate carboxyl methyltransferases and their role in the biosynthesis of methylcinnamate. Plant Cell 19, 3212–3229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Humphreys, J.M., and Chapple, C. (2002) Rewriting the lignin roadmap. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 5, 224–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Koeduka, T., et al. (2006) Eugenol and isoeugenol, characteristic aromatic constituents of spices, are biosynthesized via reduction of a coniferyl alcohol ester. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10128–10133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Koeduka, T., et al. (2008) The multiple phenylpropene synthases in both Clarkia breweri and Petunia hybrida represent two distinct protein lineages. Plant J. 54, 362–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Dexter, R., et al. (2007) Characterization of a petunia acetyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the floral volatile isoeugenol. Plant J. 49, 265–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    D’Auria, J.C. (2006) Acyltransferases in plants: a good time to be BAHD. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 9, 331–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Vassao, D.G., et al. (2006) Chavicol formation in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum): cleavage of an esterified C9 hydroxyl group with NAD(P)H-dependent reduction. Org. Biomol. Chem. 4, 2733–2744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gang, D.R., et al. (2002) Characterization of phenylpropene O-methyltransferases from sweet basil: Facile change of substrate specificity and convergent evolution within a plant O-methyltransferase family. Plant Cell 14, 505–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wang, J.H., et al. (1997) Floral scent production in Clarkia breweri (Onagraceae). 2. Localization and developmental modulation of the enzyme S-adenosyl-L-methionine-(iso)eugenol O-methyltransferase and phenylpropanoid emission. Plant Physiol. 114, 213–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Boatright, J., et al. (2004) Understanding in vivo benzenoid metabolism in petunia petal tissue. Plant Physiol. 135, 1993–2011PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Orlova, I., et al. (2006) Reduction of benzenoid synthesis in petunia flowers reveals multiple pathways to benzoic acid and enhancement in auxin transport. Plant Cell 18, 3458–3475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Podstolski, A., et al. (2002) Unusual 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde synthase activity from tissue cultures of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Phytochemistry 61, 611–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Pak, F.E., et al. (2004) Characterization of a multifunctional methyltransferase from the orchid Vanilla planifolia. Plant Cell Rep. 22, 959–966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Effmert, U., et al. (2005) Floral benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases: From in vitro to in planta function. Phytochemistry 66, 1211–1230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wang, J., and De Luca, V. (2005) The biosynthesis and regulation of biosynthesis of Concord grape fruit esters, including ‘foxy’ methylanthranilate. Plant J. 44, 606–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kaminaga, Y., et al. (2006) Plant phenylacetaldehyde synthase is a bifunctional homotetrameric enzyme that catalyzes phenylalanine decarboxylation and oxidation. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 23357–23366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tieman, D., et al. (2006) Tomato aromatic amino acid decarboxylases participate in synthesis of the flavor volatiles 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylacetaldehyde. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 8287–8292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Watanabe, S., et al. (2002) Biogenesis of 2-phenylethanol in rose flowers: Incorporation of [2H8]L-phenylalanine into 2-phenylethanol and its β-D-glucopyranoside during the flower opening of Rosa ‘Hoh-Jun’ and Rosa damascena Mill. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 66, 943–947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Feussner, I., and Wasternack, C. (2002) The lipoxygenase pathway. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 53, 275–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Seo, H.S., et al. (2001) Jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase: A key enzyme for jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 4788–4793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Song, M.S., et al. (2005) Isolation and characterization of a jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase gene from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). J. Plant Biol. 48, 292–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Matsui, K., et al. (1996) Bell pepper fruit fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase is a cytochrome P450 (CYP74B). FEBS Lett. 394, 21–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Tijet, N., et al. (2000) Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of the gene encoding fatty acid 13-hydroperoxide lyase from guava fruit (Psidium guajava). Lipids 35, 709–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kim, I.S., and Grosch, W. (1981) Partial purification and properties of a hydroperoxide lyase from fruits of pear. J. Agric. Food Chem. 29, 1220–1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mita, G., et al. (2005) Molecular cloning and characterization of an almond 9-hydroperoxide lyase, a new CYP74 targeted to lipid bodies. J. Exp. Bot. 56, 2321–2333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tijet, N., et al. (2001) Biogenesis of volatile aldehydes from fatty acid hydroperoxides: Molecular cloning of a hydroperoxide lyase (CYP74C) with specificity for both the 9-and 13-hydroperoxides of linoleic and linolenic acids. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 386, 281–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Grechkin, A. (1998) Recent developments in biochemistry of the plant lipoxygenase pathway. Prog. Lipid Res. 37, 317–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Prestage, S., et al. (1999) Volatile production in tomato fruit with modified alcohol dehydrogenase activity. J. Sci. Food Agr. 79, 131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Akacha, N.B., et al. (2005) Production of hexenol in a two-enzyme system: kinetic study and modelling. Biotechnol. Lett. 27, 1875–1878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dickinson, J.R., et al. (2000) An investigation of the metabolism of isoleucine to active amyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 10937–10942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Beck, H.C., et al. (2002) Metabolite production and kinetics of branched-chain aldehyde oxidation in Staphylococcus xylosus. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 31, 94–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Tavaria, F.K., et al. (2002) Amino acid catabolism and generation of volatiles by lactic acid bacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 85, 2462–2470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Reineccius, G. (2006) Flavor chemistry and technology, Second edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hansen, K., and Poll, L. (1993) Conversion of L-isoleucine into 2-methylbut-2-enyl esters in apples. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft Technologie 26, 178–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Rowan, D.D., et al. (1996) Biosynthesis of 2-methylbutyl, 2-methyl-2-butenyl, and 2-methylbutanoate esters in Red Delicious and Granny Smith apples using deuterium-labeled substrates. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 3276–3285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Pérez, A.G., et al. (2002) Biosynthesis of strawberry aroma compounds through amino acid metabolism. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 4037–4042PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Matich, A., and Rowan, D. (2007) Pathway analysis of branched-chain ester biosynthesis in apple using deuterium labeling and enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 2727–2735PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Wyllie, S.G., et al. (1995) Key aroma compounds in melons - their development and cultivar dependence. Fruit Flav. 596, 248–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wyllie, S.G., and Leach, D.N. (1992) The role of sulfur volatiles in melon aroma. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 253–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Amarita, F., et al. (2004) Identification and functional analysis of the gene encoding methionine-γ-lyase in Brevibacterium linens. App. Environ. Microbiol. 70, 7348–7354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Bondar, D.C., et al. (2005) Involvement of a branched-chain aminotransferase in production of volatile sulfur compounds in Yarrowia lipolytica. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 4585–4591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Pérez, A.G., et al. (1992) Aroma components and free amino-acids in strawberry variety Chandler during ripening. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 2232–2235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Aharoni, A., et al. (2000) Identification of the SAAT gene involved in strawberry flavor biogenesis by use of DNA microarrays. Plant Cell 12, 647–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Beekwilder, J., et al. (2004) Functional characterization of enzymes forming volatile esters from strawberry and banana. Plant Physiol. 135, 1865–1878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Dudareva, N., et al. (1998) Acetyl-CoA: benzylalcohol acetyltransferase – an enzyme involved in floral scent production in Clarkia breweri. Plant J. 14, 297–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    D’Auria, J.C., et al. (2002) Characterization of an acyltransferase capable of synthesizing benzylbenzoate and other volatile esters in flowers and damaged leaves of Clarkia breweri. Plant Physiol. 130, 466–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Yahyaoui, F.E.L., et al. (2002) Molecular and biochemical characteristics of a gene encoding an alcohol acyl-transferase involved in the generation of aroma volatile esters during melon ripening. Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 2359–2366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    El-Sharkawy, I., et al. (2005) Functional characterization of a melon alcohol acyl-transferase gene family involved in the biosynthesis of ester volatiles. Identification of the crucial role of a threonine residue for enzyme activity. Plant Mol. Biol. 59, 345–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Defilippi, B.G., et al. (2005) Relationship of ethylene biosynthesis to volatile production, related enzymes, and precursor availability in apple peel and flesh tissues. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 3133–3141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Frey, M., et al. (2000) An herbivore elicitor activates the gene for indole emission in maize. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 14801–14806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Raab, T., et al. (2006) FaQR, required for the biosynthesis of the strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, encodes an enone oxidoreductase. Plant Cell 18, 1023–1037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Dudareva, N., et al. (1996) Evolution of floral scent in Clarkia: novel patterns of S-linalool synthase gene expression in the C. breweri flower. Plant Cell 8, 1137–1148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kolosova, N., et al. (2001) Cellular and subcellular localization of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for biosynthesis of the volatile ester methylbenzoate in snapdragon flowers. Plant Physiol. 126, 956–964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Scalliet, G., et al. (2006) Role of petal-specific orcinol O-methyltransferases in the evolution of rose scent. Plant Physiol. 140, 18–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Effmert, U., et al. (2006) Localization of the synthesis and emission of scent compounds within the flower. In Biology of Floral Scent (Dudareva, N., and Pichersky, E., eds), 105–124, CRC/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Dudareva, N., and Pichersky, E. (2000) Biochemical and molecular genetic aspects of floral scents. Plant Physiol. 122, 627–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Bergougnoux, V., et al. (2007) Both the adaxial and abaxial epidermal layers of the rose petal emit volatile scent compounds. Planta 226, 853–866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Turner, G.W., et al. (1998) Schizogenous secretory cavities of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. and a reevaluation of the lysigenous gland concept. Int. J. Plant Sci. 159, 75–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Li, D.P., et al. (2006) Molecular cloning and expression of a gene encoding alcohol acyltransferase (MdAAT2) from apple.(cv. Golden Delicious). Phytochemistry 67, 658–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Altenburger, R., and Matile, P. (1990) Further observations on rhythmic emission of fragrance in flowers. Planta 180, 194–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Oyama-Okubo, N., et al. (2005) Emission mechanism of floral scent in Petunia axillaris. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 69, 773–777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Perez, A.G., et al. (1999) Lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase activities in ripening strawberry fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 249–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Braidot, E., et al. (2004) Biochemical and immunochemical evidence for the presence of lipoxygenase in plant mitochondria. J. Exp. Bot. 55, 1655–1662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Matsui, K., et al. (1992) Developmental changes in lipoxygenase activity in cotyledons of cucumber seedlings. Plant Sci. 85, 23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Tranbarger, T.J., et al. (1991) The soybean 94-kilodalton vegetative storage protein is a lipoxygenase that is localized in paraveinal mesophyll cell vacuoles. Plant Cell 3, 973–987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Vernooy-Gerritsen, M., et al. (1984) Intracellular localization of lipoxygenases-1 and -2 in germinating soybean seeds by indirect labeling with protein A-colloidal gold complexes. Plant Physiol. 76, 1070–1078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Feussner, I., and Kindl, H. (1992) A lipoxygenase is the main lipid body protein in cucumber and soybean cotyledons during the stage of triglyceride mobilization. FEBS Lett. 298, 223–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Feussner, I., and Kindl, H. (1994) Particulate and soluble lipoxygenase isoenzymes – comparison of molecular and enzymatic properties. Planta 194, 22–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Georgalaki, M.D., et al. (1998) Characterization of an 13-lipoxygenase from virgin olive oil and oil bodies of olive endosperms. Lipid-Fett. 100, 554–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Nellen, A., et al. (1995) Lipoxygenase forms located at the plant plasma membrane. Z. Nat. C 50, 29–36Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Chen, G.P., et al. (2004) Identification of a specific isoform of tomato lipoxygenase (TomloxC) involved in the generation of fatty acid-derived flavor compounds. Plant Physiol. 136, 2641–2651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Leone, A., et al. (2006) Lipoxygenase involvement in ripening strawberry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 6835–6844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Jakobsen, H.B., and Olsen, C.E. (1994) Influence of climatic factors on emission of flower volatiles in-situ. Planta 192, 365–371Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    MacTavish, H.S., et al. (2000) Emission of volatiles from brown boronia flowers: Some comparative observations. Ann. Bot. 86, 347–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Sharon-Asa, L., et al. (2003) Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene. Plant J. 36, 664–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Dudareva, N., et al. (2000) Developmental regulation of methyl benzoate biosynthesis and emission in snapdragon flowers. Plant Cell 12, 949–961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Verdonk, J.C., et al. (2005) ODORANT1 regulates fragrance biosynthesis in petunia flowers. Plant Cell 17, 1612–1624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Matile, P., and Altenburger, R. (1988) Rhythms of fragrance emission in flowers. Planta 174, 242–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kolosova, N., et al. (2001) Regulation of circadian methyl benzoate emission in diurnally and nocturnally emitting plants. Plant Cell 13, 2333–2347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Helsper, J., et al. (1998) Circadian rhythmicity in emission of volatile compounds by flowers of Rosa hybrida L. cv. Honesty. Planta 207, 88–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Hendel-Rahmanim, K., et al. (2007) Diurnal regulation of scent emission in rose flowers. Planta 226, 1491–1499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Loughrin, J.H., et al. (1991) Circadian rhythm of volatile emission from flowers of Nicotiana sylvestris and N. suaveolens. Physiol. Plant. 83, 492–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Underwood, B.A., et al. (2005) Ethylene-regulated floral volatile synthesis in petunia corollas. Plant Physiol. 138, 255–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Arditti, J. (1979) Aspects of the physiology of orchids. In Advances in Botanical Research (Woolhouse, H.W., ed), 422–697, Academic Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Schiestl, F.P., et al. (1997) Variation of floral scent emission and postpollination changes in individual flowers of Ophrys sphegodes subsp. sphegodes. J. Chem. Ecol. 23, 2881–2895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Tollsten, L. (1993) A multivariate approach to postpollination changes in the floral scent of Platanthera bifolia (Orchidaceae). Nord. J. Bot. 13, 495–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Tollsten, L., and Bergstrom, J. (1989) Variation and post-pollination changes in floral odors released by Platanthera bifolia (Orchidaceae). Nord. J. Bot. 9, 359–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Schiestl, F.P., and Ayasse, M. (2001) Post-pollination emission of a repellent compound in a sexually deceptive orchid: a new mechanism for maximising reproductive success? Oecologia 126, 531–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Negre, F., et al. (2003) Regulation of methylbenzoate emission after pollination in snapdragon and petunia flowers. Plant Cell 15, 2992–3006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Schade, F., et al. (2001) Fragrance volatiles of developing and senescing carnation flowers. Phytochemistry 56, 703–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Sexton, R., et al. (2005) Aroma production from cut sweet pea flowers (Lathyrus odoratus): the role of ethylene. Physiol. Plant. 124, 381–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Schaffer, R.J., et al. (2007) A Genomics approach reveals that aroma production in apple is controlled by ethylene predominantly at the final step in each biosynthetic pathway([w]). Plant Physiol. 144, 1899–1912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Manriquez, D., et al. (2006) Two highly divergent alcohol dehydrogenases of melon exhibit fruit ripening-specific expression and distinct biochemical characteristics. Plant Mol. Biol. 61, 675–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Lunkenbein, S., et al. (2006) Cinnamate metabolism in ripening fruit. Characterization of a UDP-glucose: Cinnamate glucosyltransferase from strawberry. Plant Physiol. 140, 1047–1058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Nagegowda, D.A., et al. (2008) Two nearly identical terpene synthases catalyze the formation of nerolidol and linalool in snapdragon flowers. Plant J. 55, 224–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Guterman, I., et al. (2006) Generation of phenylpropanoid pathway-derived volatiles in transgenic plants: Rose alcohol acetyltransferase produces phenylethyl acetate and benzyl acetate in petunia flowers. Plant Mol. Biol. 60, 555–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Dudareva, N., and Negre, F. (2005) Practical applications of research into the regulation of plant volatile emission. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 8, 113–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Ackermann, I.E., et al. (1989) β-glucosides of aroma components from petals of rosa species – assay, occurrence, and biosynthetic implications. J. Plant Physiol. 134, 567–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Jakobsen, H.B., and Christensen, L.P. (2002) Diurnal changes in the concentrations of 2-phenylethyl β-D-glucopyranoside and the corresponding volatile aglycone in the tissue and headspace of Trifolium repens L. florets. Plant Cell Environ. 25, 773–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Francis, M.J.O., and Allcock, C. (1969) Geraniol β-D-glucoside; Occurrence and synthesis in rose flowers. Phytochemistry 8, 1339–1347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Sakai, M., et al. (2008) Purification and characterization of β-glucosidase involved in the emission of 2-phenylethanol from rose flowers. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 72, 219–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Lunkenbein, S., et al. (2006) Up- and down-regulation of Fragaria x ananassa O-methyltransferase: impacts on furanone and phenylpropanoid metabolism. J. Exp. Bot. 57, 2445–2453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Aharoni, A., et al. (2005) Volatile science? Metabolic engineering of terpenoids in plants. Trends Plant Sci. 10, 594–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Degenhardt, J., et al. (2003) Attracting friends to feast on foes: engineering terpene emission to make crop plants more attractive to herbivore enemies. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 14, 169–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Dudareva, N., and Pichersky, E. (2006) Floral scent metabolic pathways: their regulation and evolution. In Biology of Floral Scent (Dudareva, N., and Pichersky, E., eds), 55–78, CRC/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Lücker, J., et al. (2006) Molecular engineering of floral scent. In Biology of Floral Scent (Dudareva, N., and Pichersky, E., eds), 321–337, CRC/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FLCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Lücker, J., et al. (2001) Expression of Clarkia S-linalool synthase in transgenic petunia plants results in the accumulation of S-linalyl-β-D-glucopyranoside. Plant J. 27, 315–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Lavy, M., et al. (2002) Linalool and linalool oxide production in transgenic carnation flowers expressing the Clarkia breweri linalool synthase gene. Mol. Breed. 9, 103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Lücker, J., et al. (2004) Increased and altered fragrance of tobacco plants after metabolic engineering using three monoterpene synthases from lemon. Plant Physiol. 134, 510–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    El Tamer, M.K., et al. (2003) The influence of monoterpene synthase transformation on the odour of tobacco. J. Biotechnol. 106, 15–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Lücker, J., et al. (2004) Metabolic engineering of monoterpene biosynthesis: two-step production of (+)-trans-isopiperitenol by tobacco. Plant J. 39, 135–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Aranovich, D., et al. (2007) Post-harvest enhancement of aroma in transgenic lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) using the Clarkia breweri benzyl alcohol acetyltransferase (BEAT) gene. Postharv. Biol. Technol. 43, 255–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Tieman, D.M., et al. (2007) Tomato phenylacetaldehyde reductases catalyze the last step in the synthesis of the aroma volatile 2-phenylethanol. Phytochemistry 68, 2660–2669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Zuker, A., et al. (2002) Modification of flower color and fragrance by antisense suppression of the flavanone 3-hydroxylase gene. Mol. Breed. 9, 33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Ben Zvi, M.M., et al. (2008) Interlinking showy traits: co-engineering of scent and colour biosynthesis in flowers. Plant Biotechnol. J. 6, 403–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Zvi, M.M.B., et al. (2006) Navigating the network of floral scent production. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 714, 143–154Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Torregrosa, L., et al. (2008) Manipulation of VvAdh to investigate its function in grape berry development. Plant Sci. 174, 149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Speirs, J., et al. (1998) Genetic manipulation of alcohol dehydrogenase levels in ripening tomato fruit affects the balance of some flavor aldehydes and alcohols. Plant Physiol. 117, 1047–1058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Wang, C.L., et al. (1996) Changes of fatty acids and fatty acid-derived flavor compounds by expressing the yeast δ-9 desaturase gene in tomato. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 3399–3402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Lewinsohn, E., et al. (2001) Enhanced levels of the aroma and flavor compound S-linalool by metabolic engineering of the terpenoid pathway in tomato fruits. Plant Physiol. 127, 1256–1265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Davidovich-Rikanati, R., et al. (2007) Enrichment of tomato flavor by diversion of the early plastidial terpenoid pathway. Nat. Biotechnol. 25, 899–901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Wyllie S.G., Fellman, J.K. (2000) Formation of volatile branched chain esters in bananas (Musa sapientum L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 3493–3496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Myers, M.J., et al. (1970) L-Leucine as a precursor of isoamyl alcohol and isoamyl acetate, volatile aroma constituents of banana fruit discs. Phytochemistry 9, 1693–1700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Tressl, R., Drawert, F. (1973) Biogenesis of banana volatiles. J. Agric. Food Chem. 21, 560–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Homatidou, V.I. et al. (1992) Determination of total volatile components of Cucumis melo L. variety Cantaloupensis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 1385–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Florence Negre-Zakharov
    • 1
  • Michael C. Long
    • 2
  • Natalia Dudareva
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Horticulture and Landscape ArchitecturePurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations