Role of Natural Products in Nature: Plant-Insect Interactions

  • Ruth Gordon-Weeks
  • John A. Pickett


The chapter discusses the interactions of relatively low molecular weight and largely lipophilic secondary plant metabolites with insects and some other invertebrates. This includes compounds stored within plant tissues that are toxic to insects by a range of mechanisms. It covers metabolites that are both constitutively produced and those that are induced in response to defence signalling stimuli including insect attack. Also included are volatile compounds released from plants that act as signals (semiochemicals) detected by herbivorous insects and those that interact with insects at higher trophic levels. Finally, plant to plant communication is described.


Plant Defence Herbivorous Insect Methyl Jasmonate Hydroxamic Acid Methyl Salicylate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adjei-Afriyie F, Kim CS, Takemura M, Ishikawa M, Horiike M (2000), Isolation and identification of the probing stimulants in the rice plant for the white-back planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delohacidae). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 64:443–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agelopoulos NG, Keller MA (1994) Plant-natural enemy association in the tritrophic system, Cotesia rubecula–Pieris rapae–Brassiceae (Cruciferae) III: collection and identification of plant and frass volatiles. J Chem Ecol 20:1955–1967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agrawal AA, Kurashige NS (2003) A role for isothiocyanates in plant resistance against the specialist herbivore Pieris rapae. J Chem Ecol 29:1403–1415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aharoni A, Giri AP, Deuerlein S, Griepink F, de Kogel W-J, Verstappen FWA, Verhoeven HA, Jongsma MA, Schwab W, Bouwmeester HJ (2003) Terpenoid metabolism in wild-type and transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Plant Cell 15:2866–2884PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akhkha A, Kusel J, Kennedy M, Curtis RHC (2002) Effects of phytohormones on the surfaces of plant-parasitic nematodes. Parasitology 125:165–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alborn HT, Turlings TCJ, Jones TH, Stenhagen G, Loughrin JH, Tumlinson JH (1997) An elicitor of plant volatiles from beet armyworm oral secretion. Science 276:945–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aliabadi A, Renwick JAA, Whitman DW (2002) Sequestration of glucosinolates by harlequin bug Murgantia histrionica. J Chem Ecol 28:1749–1762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aplin RT, d’Arcy Ward R, Rothschild M (1975) Examination of the large white and small white butterflies (Pieris spp.) for the presence of mustard oil and mustard oil glycosides. J Entomol 30:73–78Google Scholar
  9. Argandona VH, Luza LC, Niemeyer HM, Corcuera LJ (1980) Role of hydroxamic acids in the resistance of cereals to aphids. Phytochemistry 19:1665–1668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arimura G, Ozawa R, Nishioka T, Boland W, Koch T, Kuhnemann F, Takabayashi J (2002) Herbivore-induced volatiles induce the emission of ethylene in neighboring lima bean plants. Plant J 29:87–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baldwin IT, Schultz JC (1983) Rapid changes in tree chemistry induced by damage: evidence for communication between plants. Science 221:277–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baldwin IT, Halitschke R, Paschold A, von Dahl CC, Preston CA (2006) Volatile signaling in plant-plant interactions: “Talking Trees” in the Genomics Era. Science 10:311812–815Google Scholar
  13. Bate NJ, Rothstein SJ (1998) C6-volatiles derived from the lipoxygenase pathway induce a subset of defense-related genes. Plant J 16:561–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baumeler A, Hesse M, Werner C (2000) Benzoxazinoids–cyclic hydroxamic acids, lactams and their corresponding glucosides in the genus Aphelandra (Acanthaceae). Phytochemistry 53:213–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beale MH, Birkett MA, Bruce TJA, Chamberlain K, Field LM, Huttly AK, Martin JL, Parker R, Phillips AL, Pickett JA, Prosser IM, Shewry PR, Smart LE, Wadham LJ, Woodcock CM, Zhang Y (2006) Aphid alarm pheromone produced by transgenic plants affects aphid and parasitoid behaviour. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 6:10509–10513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beckers GJM, Spoel, SH (2006) Fine-tuning plant defence signalling: salicylate versus jasmonate. Plant Biol 8: 1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bengtsson M, Jaastad G, Knudsen G, Kobro S, Bäckman A-C, Eva Pettersson, Witzgall P (2005) Plant volatiles mediate attraction to host and non-host plant in apple fruit moth, Argyresthia conjugella. Ent. Exp. Et App. 118:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bennet RN, Wallsgrove RM (1994) Secondary metabolites in plant defence mechanisms. New Phytol 127:617–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bernays E, Edgar JA, Rothchild M (1977) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids sequestered and stored by the aposematic grasshopper Zonocerus variegates. J Zool 182:85–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Birkett MA, Campbell CAM, Chamberlain K, Guerrieri E, Hick AJ, Martin JL, Matthes M, Napier JA, Pettersson J, Pickett JA, Poppy GM, Pow EM, Pye PJ, Smart LE, Wadhams GH, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (2000) New roles for cis-jasmone as an insect semiochemical and in plant defence. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:9329–9334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Birkett MA, Bruce TJA, Martin JL, Smart LE, Oakley J, Wadhams LJ (2004) Responses of female orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana, to wheat panicle volatiles. J Chem Ecol 30:1319–1328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bisio A, Corallo A, Gastaldo P, Romussi G, Ciarallo G, Fontana N, de Tommasi N, Profumo P (1999) Glandular hairs and secreted material in Salvia blepharophylla Brandegee ex Epling grown in Italy. Ann Bot 83:441–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Blight MM, Pickett JA, Smith MC, Wadhams LJ (1984) An aggregation pheromone of Sitona lineatus. Naturwissenschaften 71:S 480Google Scholar
  24. Blight MM, Pickett JA, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (1989) Antennal response of Ceutorhynchus assimilis and Psylliodes chrysocephala to volatiles from oil seed rape. Aspect Appl Biol 23:329–334Google Scholar
  25. Bones AM, Rossiter JT (1996) The myrosinase-glucosinolate system, its organization and biochemistry. Physiol Plant 97:194–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bostock RM (2005) Signal crosstalk and induced resistance: straddling the line between cost and benefit. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43:545–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Broadway RM, Duffey SS (1988) The effect of plant protein quality on insect digestive physiology and the toxicity of plant proteinase inhibitors. J Insect Physiol 34:1111–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brower LP (1969) Ecological chemistry. Sci Am 220:22–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brown KS Jr (1984) Adult-obtained pyrrolizidine alkaloids defend ithomiine butterflies against a spider predator. Nature 309:707–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bruce TJA, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (2005) Insect host location: a volatile situation. Trends Plant Sci 10:269–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bruce TJA, Matthes MC, Napier JA, Pickett JA (2007) Stressful “memories” of plants: Evidence and possible mechanisms. Plant Science 173:603–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chamberlain K, Guerrieri E, Pennacchio F, Pettersson J, Pickett JA, Poppy GM, Powell W, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (2002) Can aphid-induced plant signals be transmitted aerially and through the rhizosphere? Biochem Syst Ecol 29:1063–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chapman RF (2003) Contact chemoreception in feeding by phytophagous insects. Annu Rev Entomol 48:455–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Combrinck S, Du Plooy GW, McCrindle RI, Botha BM (2007) Morphology and Histochemistry of the Glandular Trichomes of Lippia scaberrima (Verbenaceae). Ann Bot 99:1111–1119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Conn EE (1981) Cyanogenic glycosides. In: Conn EE (ed) The Biochemistry of Plants. A Comprehensive Treatise, Vol 7. Secondary Plant Products. Academic, New York, pp 479–499Google Scholar
  36. Conrath U, Beckers GJM, Flors V, Garcia-Agustin P, Jakab G, Mauch F, Newman MA, Pieterse CMJ, Poinssot P, Pozo MJ, Pugin A, Schaffrath J, Ton J, Wendehenne D, Zimmerli L, Mauch-Mani B (2006) Priming: getting ready for battle. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 19:1062–1071PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Creelman RA, Mullet JE (1997) Biosynthesis and action of jasmonates in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 48:355–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Curtis RHC (2007) Do phytohormones influence nematode invasion and feeding site establishment? Nematology 9:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dawson GW, Griffiths DC, Pickett JA, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (1987) Plant-derived synergists of alarm pheromone from turnip aphids, Lipaphis (Hyadaphis) erysimi (Homoptera, Aphididae). J Chem Ecol 13:1663–1671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. De Boer G, Hanson FE (1987) Feeding responses to Solanaceous allelochemicals by larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Entomol Exp Appl 45:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Delphia CM, Mescher MC, De Moraes CM (2007) Induction of plant volatiles by herbivores with different feeding habits and the effects of induced defenses on host-plant selection by thrips. J Chem Ecol 33: 997–1012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. De Luca V, St Pierre B (2000) The cell and developmental biology of alkaloid biosynthesis. Trends Plant Sci 5:168–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. De Moraes CM, Lewis WJ, Paré PW, Alborn HT, Tumlinson JH (1998) Herbivore-infested plants selectively attract parasitoids. Nature 393:570–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. de Vos M, Kim JH, Jander G (2007) Biochemistry and molecular biology of Arabidopsis-aphid interactions. Bioessays 29:879–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Devine KJ, Jones PW (2000) Purification and partial, characterisation of hatching factors for the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis from potato root leachate. Nematology 2:231–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Devine KJ, Jones PW (2003) Investigations into the chemoattraction of the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida towards fractionated potato root leachate. Nematology 5:65–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dicke M, Bruin J (2001) Chemical information transfer between plants: back to the future. Biochem Syst Ecol 29:981–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dicke M, Dijkman H (2001) Within-plant circulation of systemic elicitor of induced defence and release from roots of elicitor that affects neighbouring plants. Biochem Syst Ecol 29:1075–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dicke M, Sabelis MW, Takabayashi J, Bruin J, Posthumus MA (1990) Plant strategies of manipulating predator-prey interactions through allelochemicals: prospects for application in pest control. J Chem Ecol 16:3091–3118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dicke M, Takabyashi J, Posthumus MA, Schütte C, Krips OE (1998) Plant-phytoseiid interactions mediated by prey-induced plant volatiles: variation in production of cues and variation in responses of predatory mites. Exp Appl Acarol 22: 311–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dicke M, Van Poecke RMP, De Boer JG (2003) Inducible indirect defence of plants: from mechanisms to ecological functions. Basic Appl Ecol 4: 27–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ding H, Lamb RJ, Ames N (2000) Inducible production of phenolic acids in wheat and antibiotic resistance to Sitodiplosis mosellana. J Chem Ecol 26:969–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Doughty KJ, Kiddle GA, Pye BJ, Wallsgrove RM, Pickett JA (1995) Selective induction of glucosinolates in oilseed rape leaves by methyl jasmonate. Phytochemistry 38:347–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Downs CT, McDonald PM, Brown K, Ward D (2003) Effects of Acacia condensed tannins on urinary parameters, body mass, and diet choice of an Acacia specialist rodent, Thallomys nigricauda. J Chem Ecol 29:845–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Du YJ, Poppy GM, Powell W (1996) Relative importance of semiochemicals from first and second trophic levels in host foraging behavior of Aphidius ervi. J Chem Ecol 22:1591–1605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Du YJ, Poppy GM, Powell W, Pickett J A, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (1998) Identification of semiochemicals released during aphid feeding that attract parasitoid Aphidius ervi. J Chem Ecol 24:1355–1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Edgar JA, Boppré M, Kaufmann E (2007) Insect-synthesised retronecine ester alkaloids: precursors of the common Arctiine (Lepidoptera) pheromone hydroxydanaidal. J Chem Ecol 33:2266–2280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Elzen GW, Williams HJ, Bell AA, Stipanovic RD, Vinson SB (1985) Quantification of volatile terpenes of glanded and glandless Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars and lines by gas chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 33:1079–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Endo N, Abe M, Sekine T, Matsuda K (2004) Feeding stimulants of solanaceae-feeding lady beetle, Epilachna vigintioctomaculata (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) from potato leaves. Appl Entomol Zool 39:411–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Engelberth J, Alborn HT, Schmelz EA, Tumlinson JH (2004) Airborne signals prime plants against insect herbivore attack. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:1781–1785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Esen A (1992) Purification and partial characterization of maize (Zea mays L.) beta glucosidase Plant Physiol 98:174–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Faccoli M, Blaženec M, Schlyter F (2005) Feeding response to host and non-host compounds by males and females of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus in a tunnelling microassay. J Chem Ecol 31:745–759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Faccoli M, Schlyter F (2007) Conifer phenolic resistance markers are bark beetle antifeedant semiochemicals. Agric Forest Entomol 9:237–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Fahey JW, Zalcmann AT, Talalay P (2001) The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants. Phytochemistry 56:5–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Farag MA. Pare PW (2002) C6-Green leaf volatiles trigger local and systemic VOC emissions in tomato. Phytochemistry 61:545–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Farmer EE (2001) “Surface-to-air signals”. Nature 411: 854–856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Farmer EE, Almeras E, Krishnamurthy V (2003) Jasmonates and related oxylipins in plant responses to pathogenesis and herbivory. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:372–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Feeny P (1976) Plant apparency and chemical defense. In: Wallace JW, Mansell RL (eds) Biochemical Interaction Between Plants and Insects. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, Vol 10. Plenum Press New York 1–40Google Scholar
  69. Fernandez P, Hilker M (2007) Host plant location by Chrysomelidae. Basic and Applied Ecology 8:97–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Fraser AM, Mechaber WL, Hildebrand JG (2003) Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta to host plant headspace volatiles. J Chem Ecol 29:1813–1833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Frey M, Chomet P, Glawischnig E, Stettner C, Grün S, Winklmair A, Eisenreich W, Bacher A, Meeley RB, Briggs SP, Simcox K, Gierl A (1997). Analysis of a chemical defense mechanism in grasses. Science 277:696–699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Friebe A, Rith U, Kuck P, Schnabl H, Schulz M (1997) Effects of 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones on the activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase Phytochemistry 44: 979–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Frost CJ, Appel HM, Carlson JE, De Moraes CM, Mescher MC, Schultz JC (2007) Within-plant signalling via volatiles overcomes vascular constraints on systemic signalling and primes responses against herbivores. Ecology Letters 10:490–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gershenzon J, Turlings TCG, Rasmann S, Köllner TG, Degenhardt J, Hiltpold I, Toepfer S, Kuhlmann U, Gershenzon J, Turlings T (2005) Recruitment of entomopathogenic nematodes by insect-damaged maize roots ct-damaged maize roots. Nature 434:732–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gianoli E, Niemeyer HM (1998) Allocation on herbivory induced hydroxamic acids in the wild wheat Triticum uniaristatum. Chemecology 8:19–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gibson RW, Pickett JA (1983) Wild potato repels aphids by release of aphid alarm pheromone. Nature 302:608–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gierl A, Frey M (2001) Evolution of benzoxazinone biosynthesis and indole production in maize. Planta 213:493–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ginzel MD, Hanks LM (2005) Role of host plant volatiles in mate location for three species of longhorned beetles. J Chem Ecol 31:213–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Glendinning JI, Nelson NM, Bernays EA (2000) How do inositol and glucose modulate feeding in Manduca sexta caterpillars? J Exp Biol 203:1299–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Glinwood R, Pettersson J, Ahmed E, Ninkovic V, Birkett MA, Pickett JA (2003) Change in Acceptability of Barley Plants to Aphids After Exposure to Allelochemicals from Couch-Grass (Elytrigia repens). J Chem Ecol 29:261–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Grubb DG, Abel S (2006) Glucosinylate metabolism and its control. Trends in Plant Sci 11:89–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Guerrero A, Feixas J, Pajares J, Wadhams LJ, Pickett JA, Woodcock CM (1997) Semiochemically induced inhibition of behaviour of Tomicus destruens (Woll) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Naturwissenschaften 84:155–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Guerrieri E, Poppy GM, Powell W, Tremblay E, Pennacchio F (1999) Induction and systemic release of herbivore-induced plant volatiles mediating in-flight orientation of Aphidius ervi. J Chem Ecol 25:1247–1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Guerrieri E, Poppy GM, Powell W, Rao R, Pennacchio F (2002) Plant-to-plant communication mediating in-flight orientation of Aphidius ervi. J Chem Ecol 28:1703–1715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Halitschke R, Schittko U, Boland W, Baldwin IT (2001) Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata. III. Fatty acid–amino acid conjugates in herbivore oral secretions are necessary and sufficient for herbivore-specific plant responses. Plant Physiol 125:711–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Halkier BA, Gershenzon J (2006) Biology and biochemistry of glucosinolates. Annu Rev Plant Biol 57:303–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hallahan DL (2000) Monoterterpenoid biosynthesis in glandular trichomes of Labiate plants. Adv Bot Res 31:77–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hardie J, Isaacs R, Pickett JA, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (1994) Methyl salicylate and (-)-(1r,5s)-myrtenal are plant-derived repellents for black bean aphid, Aphis-fabae scop (Homoptera, Aphididae). J Chem Ecol 20:2847–2855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Harmel N, Létocart E, Cherqui A, Giordanengo P, Mazzucchelli G, Guillonneau F,. De Pauw E, Haubruge E, Francis F Identification of aphid salivary proteins: a proteomic investigation of Myzus persicae. Insect mol Biol 17:165–174Google Scholar
  90. Hatanaka A (1993) The biogeneration of green odour by green leaves. Phytochemistry 34:1201–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Heil M (2008) Indirect defence via tritrophic interactions. New Phytologist 178:41–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Heil M, Ton J (2008) Long-distance signalling in plant defence. Trends in Plant Science 13:264–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hori M (1996) Settling inhibition and insecticidal activity of garlic and onion oils against Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera, Aphidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology (Japan) 31:605–612Google Scholar
  94. Hori M, Kamatsu H (1997) Repellancy of rosemary oil and its components against onion aphid NeotoxopteraH formosana (Takahashi) (Homoptera, Aphidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology (Japan) 32:303–310Google Scholar
  95. Itier V, Bertrand D (2001). Neuronal nicotinic receptors: from protein structure to function. FEBS letters 504:118–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Jassbi AR, Gase K, Hettenhausen C, Schmidt A, Baldwin IT (2008) Silencing Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase in Nicotiana attenuata Dramatically Impairs Resistance to Tobacco Hornworm. Plant Physiol 146: 974–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Jassbi AR, Zamanizadehnajari S, Kessler D, Baldwin IT (2006) A new acyclic diterpene glycoside from Nicotiana attenuata with a mild deterrent effect on feeding Manduca sexta larvae. Z Naturforsch 61b:1138–1142Google Scholar
  98. Jordan AT, Jones TH, Conner WE (2005) If you’ve got it, flaunt it: ingested alkaloids affect corematal display behavior in the salt marsh moth, Estigmene acrea. Journal of Insect Science (Tucson) 5:Art1Google Scholar
  99. Kalberer NM, Turlings TCJ, Rahier M (2001) Attraction of a leaf beetle (Oreina cacaliae) to damaged host plants. J Chem Ecol 27:647–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Karban R, Baldwin IT (1997) Induced Responses to Herbivory. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  101. Karban R, Maron J, Felton GW, Ervin G, Eichenseer H (2003) Herbivore damage to sagebrush induces resistance in wild tobacco: evidence for eavesdropping between plants. Oikos 100:325–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Keinänen M, Oldham NJ, Baldwin IT (2001) Rapid HPLC Screening of Jasmonate-Induced Increases in Tobacco Alkaloids, Phenolics, and Diterpene Glycosides in Nicotiana attenuate. J Agric Food Chem 49:3553–3558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kendrick AP, Raffa KF (2006) Sources of insect and plant volatiles attractive to cottonwood leaf beetles feeding on hybrid poplar. J Chem Ecol 32:2585–2594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Kessler A, Halitschke R, Diezel C, Baldwin IT (2006) Priming of plant defense responses in nature by airborne signaling between Artemisia tridentata and Nicotiana attenuata. Oecologia 148:280–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Khan HMM, Khan ZR, Mueke JM, Hassanali A, Kairu E, Pickett JA (2007) Behaviour and biology of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) on Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. infested and uninfested maize plants. Crop Prot 26:998–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kim JH, Jander G (2007) Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) feeding on Arabidopsis induces the formation of a deterrent indole glucosinolate. The Plant Journal 49:1008–1019PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kim M, Koh HS, Fukami H (1985) Isolation of C-glucosylflavones as probing stimulants of planthoppers in the rice plant. J Chem Ecol 11:441–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kluge M, Schneider B, Sicker D (1997) Diastereoselective synthesis of the benzoxazinone acetal glucoside ent-GDIMBOA: The first enantiomer of a natural acetal glucoside Carbohydrate Research 298:147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Klun JA, Robinson JF (1969) Concentration of two 1,4-benzoxazinones in dent corn at various stages of development of the plant and its relation to resistance of the host plant to the European corn borer. J Econ Entomol 62:214Google Scholar
  110. Koroleva OA, Davies A, Deeken R, Thorpe MR, Tomos AD, Hedrich R (2000) Identification of a New Glucosinolate-Rich Cell Type in Arabidopsis Flower Stalk. Plant Physiol. 124:599–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lambrix V, Reichelt M, Mitchell-Olds T, Kliebenstein DJ, Gershenzon J (2001) The Arabidopsis Epithiospecifier Protein Promotes the Hydrolysis of Glucosinolates to Nitriles and Influences Trichoplusia ni herbivory. Plant Cell 13:2793–2807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Landholt PJ, Phillips TW (1997) Host plant influences on sex pheromone behaviour of phytophagous insects. Annual review of Entomology 42:371–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Leon J, Rojo E, Sanchez-Serrano JJ (2001) Wound signalling in plants. J Exp Bot 52:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Li Q, Eigenbrode SD, Stringam GR, Thiagarajah MR (2000) Feeding and Growth of Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera eridania on Brassica juncea with Varying Glucosinolate Concen­trations and Myrosinase Activities. J Chem Ecol 26:2291–2305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Loughrin JH, Manukian A, Heath RR, Turlings TCJ, Tumlinson JH (1994) Diurnal cycle of emission of induced volatile terpenoids herbivore-injured cotton plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:11836–11840PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lunau K (1992) Evolutionary aspects of perfume collection in male euglossine bees (Hymenoptera) and of nest deception in bee-pollinated flowers. Chemeoecology 3:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Macias FA, Galindo JLG, Galindo JCG (2007) Evolution and current status of ecological phytochemistry. Phytochemistry 68:2917–2936PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mahroof RM, Phillips TW (2008) Responses of stored-product Anobiidae to pheromone lures and plant-derived volatiles. Journal of applied Entomology 132:161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Matsuda K (1978) Feeding stimulation of flavonoids for various leaf beetles (Chry­someliae:coleoptera) Appl Ent Zool 13:228–230Google Scholar
  120. Mattiacci L, Dicke M, Posthumus MA (1994) Induction of parasitoid attracting synomone in Brussels sprouts plants by feeding of Pieris brassicae larvae: role of mechanical damage and herbivore elicitor. J Chem Ecol 20:2229–2247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. McKey D (1979) The distribution of secondary compounds within plants In: Rosenthal GA, Janzen DH, Orlando (eds) Herbivores: Their Interaction with Secondary Metabolites. Academic, Orlando, FL, pp. 56–134Google Scholar
  122. Miller DR (2006) Ethanol and (-)-alpha-pinene: attractant kairomones for some large wood-boring beetles in southeastern USA. J Chem Ecol 32:779–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Montgomery ME, Arn H (1972) Feeding response of Aphis pomi, Myzus persicae, and Amphorophora agathonica to phlorizin. J Insect Physiol 20:413–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Moraes MCB, Birkett MA, Gordon-Weeks R, Smart LE, Martin JL, Pye BJ, Bromilow R, Pickett JA (2008) cis-Jasmone induces accumulation of defence compounds in wheat, Triticum aestivum. Phytochemistry 69:9–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Moran PJ, Cheng Y, Cassell JL, Thompson GL (2007) Gene expression profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana in compatible plant-aphid interactions. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 51:182–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Morewood WD, Simmonds KE, Wilson IM, Borden JH, Mcintosh RL (2002) α-Pinene and ethanol: key host volatiles for Xylotrechus longitarsis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). J Entomol Soc B C 99:117–122Google Scholar
  127. Morimoto S, Suemori K, Moriwaki J, Taura F, Tanaka H, Aso M, Tanaka M, Hiroshi Suemune H, Shimohigashi Y, Shoyama Y (2001) Morphine metabolism in the Opium poppy and its possible physiological function. J Biol Chem 2001 276:38179–38184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Müller C, Agerbirk N, Olsen CE, Boevé J-L, Schaffner U, Brakefield PB (2001) Sequestration of host plant glucosinolates in the defensive hemolymph of the sawfly Athalia rosae. J Chem Ecol 27: 2505–2516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Neal JJ, Tingey WM, Steffens JC (1990) Sucrose esters of carboxylic-acids in glandular trichomes of Solanum berthaultii deter settling and probing by green peach aphid. J Chem Ecol 16:487–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Netherlands Organization For Scientific Research (2001) Environmentally-friendly pesticide to combat potato cyst nematodes. Science DailyGoogle Scholar
  131. Nickolson RL, Hammerschmidt R (1992) Phenolic compounds and their role in disease resistance. Annu Rev Phytopathol 30: 369–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Niemeyer, H.M (1988) Hydroxamic acids (4-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones) defence chemicals in the Gramineae. Phytochemistry 27:3349–3358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Niemeyer HM, Pesel E, Copaja SV, Bravo HR, Franke S, Franke W (1989) Changes in hydroxamic acid levels of wheat plants induced by aphid feeding. Phytochemistry 28:447–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Nishida R (2002) Sequestration of defensive substances from plants by Lepidoptera, Annu Rev Entomol 47:57–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Nishida R, Schulz S, Kim CS, Fukami H, Kuwahara Y, Honda K, Hayashi N (1996) Male sex pheromone of a giant danaine butterfly, Idea leuconoe. J Chem Ecol 22: 949–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Nottingham SF, Hardie J, Dawson GW, Hick AJ, Pickett JA, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (1991) Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of aphids to host and nonhost plant volatiles. J Chem Ecol 17:1231–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. O’Donnell PJ, Calvert C, Atzorn R, Wasternack C, Leyser HMO, Bowles DJ (1996) Ethylene as a signal mediating the wound response of tomato plants. Science 274:1914–1917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Ohta N, Mori N, Kuwahara Y, Nishida R (2006) A hemiterpene glucoside as a probing deterrent of the bean aphid, Megoura crassicauda, from a non-host vetch, Vicia hirsute. Phytochemistry 67:584–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Omar S, Marcotte M, Fields P, Sanchez PE, Poveda L, Mata R, Jimenez A, Durst T, Zhang J, MacKinnon S, Leaman D, Arnason JT, Philogène BJR (2007) Antifeedant activities of terpenoids isolated from tropical Rutales. J Stored Prod Res 43:92–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Onyilagha JC, Lazorko J, Gruber MY, Soroka JG, Erlandson MA (2004) Effect of flavonoids on feeding preference and development of the crucifer pest Mamestra configurata Walker. J Chem Ecol 30:109–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Osbourn A (1996) Saponins and plant defence-a soapy story. Trends Plant Sci 1:4–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Paschold A, Halitschke R, Baldwin IT (2006) Using ‘mute’ plants to translate volatile signals. Plant J 45:275–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Peacock L, Herrick S, Brain P (1999) Spatio-temporal dynamics of willow beetle (Phratora vulgatissima) in short-rotation coppice willows grown as monocultures or a genetically diverse mixture. Agric Forest Entomol 1:287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Peacock L, Lewis M, Powers S (2001) Volatile compounds from Salix spp. Varieties differing in susceptibility to three willow beetle species J Chem Ecol 27:1943–1951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Peña-Cortés H, Sánchez-Serrrano JJ, Mertens R, Willmitzer L (1989) Abscisic acid is involved in the wound-induced expression of the proteinase inhibitor II gene in potato and tomato. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:9851–9855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Perry RN (2005) An evaluation of types of attractants enabling plant-parasitic nematodes to locate plant roots. Russ J Nematol 13:83–88Google Scholar
  147. Pettersson J, Pickett JA, Pye BJ, Quiroz A, Smart LE, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (1994) Winter host component reduces colonization by bird-cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L) (Homoptera, Aphididae), and other aphids in cereal fields. J Chem Ecol 20:2565–2574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Pettersson J, Ninkovic V, Ahmed A (1999) Volatiles from different barley cultivars affect aphid acceptance of neighbouring plants. Acta Agric Scand B Soil Plant Sci 49:152–157Google Scholar
  149. Pickett A (1990) Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in insect pheromone identification: three extreme case histories. In: McCaffrey ID, Wilson AR (eds) Chromatography and Isolation of Insect Hormones and Pheromones. Plenum, New York, pp 281–288Google Scholar
  150. Pickett JA, Glinwood RT (2007) Chemical ecology. In: van Emden H, Harrington R (eds) Aphids as Crop Pests. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 235–260Google Scholar
  151. Pickett JA, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (1998) Insect supersense: mate and host location by insects as model systems for exploiting olfactory interactions. The Biochemist 20:8–13Google Scholar
  152. Pickett JA, Smiley DWM, Woodcock CM (1999) Secondary metabolites in plant-insect interactions: dynamic systems of induced and adaptive responses. Adv Bot Res 30:91–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Pickett JA, Rasmussen HB, Woodcock CM, Matthes W, Napier JA (2003) Plant stress signalling: understanding and exploiting plant-plant interactions. Biochem Soc Trans 31:123–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Pope TW, Kissen R, Grant M, Pickett JA, Rossiter JA, Powell G (2008) Comparative innate responses of the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae to alken glucosinolate derived isothiocyanates, nitriles, and epithionitriles. J Chem Ecol 34:1302–1310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Pureswaran DS, Gries R, Borden JH (2004) Quantitative variation in monoterpenes in four species of conifers. Biochem Syst Ecol 32:1109–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Raghu S, Clarke AR (2003) Sexual selection in a tropical fruit fly: role of a plant derived chemical in mate choice. Entomol Exp Appl 108: 53–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rasmann S, Köllner TG, Degenhardt J, Hiltpold I, Toepfer S, Kuhlmann U, Gershenzon J, Turlings TC (2005) Recruitment of entomopathogenic nematodes by insect-damaged maize roots. Nature 434:732–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Ratzka A, Vogel H, Kliebenstein DJ, Mitchell-Olds T, Kroymann J (2002) Disarming the mustard oil bomb. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:11223–11228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Rees CJC (1969) Chemoreceptor specificity associated with choice of feeding site by the beetle Chrysolina brunsvicensis on its foodplant, Hypericum hirsutum. Entomol Exp Appl 12:565–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rhoades DF, Cates RG (1976) Toward a general theory of plant antiherbivore chemistry. In: Wallace JW, Mansell RL (eds) Biochemical Interaction Between Plants and Insects, Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, Vol 10. Plenum, New York, pp 168–213Google Scholar
  161. Robinson AF (2002) Soil and plant interaction impact on plant-parasitic nematode host finding and recognition In: Lewis EE, Cambell LF, Sukhdeo MVK (eds) The Biochemical Ecology of Parasites. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 89–110Google Scholar
  162. Roeske CN, Seiber JN, Brower LP, Moffitt CM (1975). Milkweed cardenolides and their comparative processing by monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus). Recent Adv Phytochem 10:93–16Google Scholar
  163. Rolf RN, Barrett J, Perry RN (2000) Analysis of chemosensory responses of second stage juveniles of Globodera rostochiensis using electrophysiological techniques. Nematology 2:523–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Rothschild M (1972) Secondary plant substances and warning colouration in insects. Symp R Entomol Soc London 6:59–83Google Scholar
  165. Rühm R, Dietsche E, Harloff H-J, Lieb M, Franke S, Aumann J (2003) Characterisation and partial purification of a white mustard kairomone that attracts the beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii. Nematology 5:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Ruther J, Kleier S (2005) Plant–plant signaling: ethylene synergizes volatile emission in Zea mays induced by exposure to (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol. J Chem Ecol 31:2217–2222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Sadek MM, Anderson P (2007) Modulation of reproductive behaviour of Spodoptera littoralis by host and non-host plant leaves. Basic Appl Ecol 8:444–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Schie CCN, van Haring MA, Schuurink, RC (2007) Tomato linalool synthase is induced in trichomes by jasmonic acid. Plant Mol Biol 64:251–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Schindek R, Hilker M (1996) Influence of larvae of Gastrophysa viridula on the distribution of conspecific adults in the field. Ecol Entomol 21:370–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Schoonhoven LM, van Loon JJA (2002) An inventory of taste in caterpillars: each species its own key. Acta Zool Acad Sci Hung 48:215–63Google Scholar
  171. Schuler MA (1996) The role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in plant defence interactions. Plant Physiol 112:1411–1419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Schullehner K, Dick R, Vitzthum F, Schwab W, Brandt W, Frey M, Gierl A (2008) Benzoxazinoid biosynthesis in dicot plants. Phytochemistry 69:2668–2677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Seigler DS (1991) Cyanide and cyanogenic glycosides. In: Rosenthal GA, Berenbaum MR (eds) Herbivores: Their Interaction with Secondary metabolites. Academic, Orlando, FL, pp 35–77Google Scholar
  174. Seigler DS (1998) Cyanogenic glycosides and cyanolipids. In: Siegler DS (ed) Plant Secondary Metabolism. Kluwer, Boston, MA/Dordrecht/London, pp 273–299Google Scholar
  175. Shiojiri K, Takabayashi J, Yano S, Takafuji A (2000) Herbivore-species-specific interactions between crucifer plants and parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) that are mediated by infochemicals present in areas damaged by herbivores. Appl Entomol Zool 35:519–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Shiojiri K, Takabayashi J, Yano S, Takafuji A (2001) Infochemically mediated tritrophic interaction webs on cabbage plants. Popul Ecol 43:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sicker D, Frey M, Schulz M, Gierl A (2000) Role of benzoxazinones in the survival strategy of plants. Int Rev Cytol 198:319–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Simpson CL, Simpson SJ, Abisgold JD (1990) The role of various amino acids in the protein compensatory response of Locusta migratoria. Symp Biol Hung 39:39–52Google Scholar
  179. Snook ME, Johnson AW, Severson RF, Teng Q, White RA Jr, Sisson VA, Jackson DM (1997) Hydroxygeranyllinalool glycosides from tobacco exhibit antibiosis activity in the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.). J Agric Food Chem 45: 2299–2308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Spencer KC (1988) Chemical mediation of coevolution in the Passiflora–Heliconius interaction. In: Spencer KC (ed) Chemical Mediation of Coevolution. Academic, New York, pp 167–240Google Scholar
  181. Steppuhn A, Gase K, Krock B, Halitschke R, Ian T. Baldwin IT (2004) Nicotine’s defensive function in nature. PLoS Biol 2: E217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Stamp N (2003) Out of the quagmire of plant defence hypotheses. Quart Rev Biol 78: 23–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Sue M, Yamazaki K, Yajima S, Nomura T, Matsukawa T, Iwamura H, Miyamoto T (2006) Molecular and structural characterization of hexameric β-D-glucosidases in wheat and rye. Plant Physiol 141:1237–1247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Takabayashi J, Dicke M (1996) Plant-carnivore mutualism through herbivore-induced carnivore attractants. Trends Plant Sci 1:109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Takabayashi J, Dicke M, Posthumus MA (1994) Volatile herbivore-induced terpenoids in plant–mite interactions: variation caused by biotic and abiotic factors. J Chem Ecol 20:1329–1354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Takemura M, Nishida R, Mori N, Kuwahara Y (2002) Acylated flavonol glycosides as probing stimulants of a bean aphid, Megoura crassicauda, from Vicia angustifolia. Phytochemistry 61:135–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Textor S, Bartram S, Kroymann J, Falk KL, Hick A, Pickett JA, Jonathan Gershenzon J (2004) Biosynthesis of methionine-derived glucosinolates in Arabidopsis thaliana: recombinant expression and characterization of methylthioalkylmalate synthase, the condensing enzyme of the chain-elongation cycle. Planta 218:1026–1035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Thaler J S (1999) Jasmonate-inducible plant defences cause increased parasitism of herbivores. Nature 399:686–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Thackaray DJ, Wratten SD, Edwards PJ, Niemeyer HM (1990) Resistance to the aphids Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi in Gramineae in relation to hydroxamic acid levels. Ann Appl Biol 116:573–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Thompson GA, Goggin FL (2006) Transcriptomics and functional genomics of plant defence induction by phloem feeding insects. J Exp Bot 57:755–766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Ton J, D’Alessandro M, Jourdie V, Jakab G, Karlen D, Held M, Mauch Mani B, Turlings TCJ (2007) Priming by airborne signals boosts direct and indirect resistance in maize. Plant J 49:16–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Tscharntke T, Thiessen S, Dolch R, Boland W (2001) Herbivory, induced resistance, and interplant signal transfer in Alnus glutinosa. Biochem Syst Ecol 29:1025–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Turlings TCJ, Wäckers FL (2004) Recruitment of predators and parasitoids by herbivore-damaged plants. Cambridge University Press CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  194. Turlings TC, Loughrin JH, McCall PJR, Lewis WJ, Tumlinson JH (1995) How caterpillar-damaged plants protect themselves by attracting parasitic wasps. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:4169–4174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. van Drongelen W (1979) Contact chemoreception of host plant specific chemicals in larvae of various Yponomeuta species (Lepidoptera). J Comp Physiol 134:265–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Velozo JA, Alvarez RI, Wächter GA, Timmermann BN Corcuera LJ (1999) Increase in gramine content in barley infested by the aphid Schizaphis graminum R. Phytochemistry 52:1059–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Visser JH (1988) Host-plant finding by insects – orientation, sensory input and search patterns. J Insect Physiol 34:259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Walling LL (2000) The myriad plant responses to herbivores. J Plant Growth Regul 19:195–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Wasternack C (2007) Jasmonates: an update on biosynthesis, signal transduction and action in plant stress response, growth and development Ann Bot 100:681–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Wheat CW, Vogel H, Wittstock U, Braby MF, Underwood D, Mitchell-Olds T (2007) The genetic basis of a plant–insect coevolutionary key innovation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA:104:20427–20431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Wieczorek H, Koppl R (1978) Effect of sugars on the labellar water cell receptor of the fly. J Comp Physiol 126:131–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Williams III L, Rodriguez-Saona C, Pare PW, Crafts-Brandner SJ (2005) The piercing–sucking herbviores Lygus hesperus and Nezara viridula induce volatile emissions in plants. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 58:84–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Wink M (2000) Interference of alkaloids with neuroreceptors and ion channels. In: Atta-Ur-Rahman X (ed) Bioactive Natural Products. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 3–129Google Scholar
  204. Wink M (2003) Evolution of secondary metabolites from an ecological and molecular phylogenetic perspective. Phytochemistry 64:3–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Winz RA, Baldwin IT (2001) Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata. IV. Insect-induced ethylene reduces jasmonate-induced nicotine accumulation by regulating putrescine N-methyltransferase transcripts. Plant Physiol 125:2189–2202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Wittstock U, Gershenzon J (2002) Constitutive plant toxins and their role in defence against herbivores and pathogens. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Wittstock U, Lichtnow KH, Teuschere M (1997) Effects of cicutoxin and related polyacetylenes from Cituta virosa on neuronal action potentials: a comparative study on the convulsive action. Planta Med 63:120–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Witzgall P, Stelinski L, Gut L, Thomson L (2008) Codling moth management and chemical ecology. Annu Rev Entomol 53: 503–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Wu H, Haig T, Pratley J, Lemerle D, An M (2001) Allelochemicals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): production and exudation of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one. J Chem Ecol 27:1691–1700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Wuyts N, Swennen R, De Waele D (2006) Effects of plant phenylpropanoid pathway products and selected terpenoids and alkaloids on the behaviour of the plant-parasitic nematodes Radopholus similis, Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita. Nematology 8:89–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Yan ZG, Wang CZ (2006) Wound-induced green leaf volatiles cause the release of acetylated derivatives and a terpenoid in maize. Phytochemistry 67: 34–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Zarate SI, Kempema LA, Walling LL (2007) Silverleaf whitefly induces salicylic acid responses and represses effectual jasmonic responses in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 143: 866–875PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Zenk MH, Juenger M (2007) Evolution and current status of the phytochemistry of nitrogenous compounds. Phytochemistry 68:2757–2772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological ChemistryCentre for Pest and Disease Management, Rothamsted Research, West CommonHarpendenHertfordshire

Personalised recommendations