Advertisement

Animal Studies

  • John G. Webster
Chapter

Because of the potential danger of ventricular fibrillation (VF), numerous TASER conducted electrical weapon (CEW) studies have been performed on animals. Holden et al. [1] injected M26 and X26 TASER waveforms to an electrode on the ventricular epicardial surface of guinea pig isolated hearts, but were unable to induce VF. However, it is known that inducing sustained VF in very small animals (such as guinea pigs) is difficult and impossible for some stimulus paradigms, justifying the need for considering data from larger animals, such as the live pig, more similar to humans, despite the obvious increases in experimental complexity. In addition, pigs are inexpensive and do not have the animal rights concerns attached to them that pet animals such as dogs do. However, anesthetized pigs may have different susceptibility to VF than conscious pigs. Pig studies have focused on whether or not TASER CEW darts on the back or near the heart on the front can cause VF.

Keywords

Ventricular Fibrillation Xiphoid Process Safety Index Cocaine Infusion Ventricular Fibrillation Threshold 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Holden, SJ, Sheridan, RD, Coffey, TJ, Scaramuzza, RA, Diamantopoulos, P. Electromagnetic modelling of current flow in the heart from TASER devices and the risk of cardiac dysrhythmias, Phys Med Biol 2007; 52: 7193–7209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Roy OZ, Podorski AS. Tests on a shocking device—the stun gun. Med Biol Eng Comput 1989; 27: 445–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    McDaniel WC, Stratbucker RA, Nerheim M, Brewer JE. Cardiac safety of neuromuscular incapacitating defensive devices. PACE-Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2005; 28: S284–S287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lakkireddy D, Wallick D, Ryschon K, Chung MK, Butany J, Martin D, Saliba W, Kowalewski W, Natale A, Tchou PJ. Effects of cocaine intoxication on the threshold for stun gun induction of ventricular fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 48(4): 805–811.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Maier A, Nance P, Price P, Sherry CJ, Reilly JP, Klauenberg BJ, Drummond JT. Human effectiveness and risk characterization of the electromuscular incapacitation device—a limited analysis of the TASER, Part II Non Lethal Weapon—EMI Appendices Public V1 Mar 05 final, Mar 2005, website [Online]. Available: http://www.taser.com/documents/Part%20II%20NLW%20-%20EMI%20Appendices%20Public%20V1%20Mar%2005%20final.pdf
  6. 6.
    Tisdale JE, Shimoyama, H, Sabbah, NH, Webb CR. The effect of cocaine on ventricular fibrillation threshold in the normal canine heart. Pharmacotherapy 1996; 16(3): 429–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Przywara DA, Dambach GE. Direct actions of cocaine on cardiac cellular electrical activity. Circ Res 1989; 65(1): 185–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lange RA, Cigarroa JE, Hillis LD. Theodore e. Woodward award: cardiovascular complications of cocaine abuse. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 2004; 115: 99–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nanthakumar K, Billingsley IM, Masse S, Dorian P, Cameron D, Chauhan VS, Downar E, Sevaptsidis E. Cardiac electrophysiological consequences of neuromuscular incapacitating device discharges. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 48(4): 798–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Han J, de Jalon PG, Moe GK. Adrenergic effects on ventricular vulnerability. Circ Res 1964; XIV: 516–524.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mouchawar G, Kroll M, Val-Mejias JE, Schwartzman D, McKenzie J, Fitzgerald D. Prater S, Katcher M, Fain E, Syed Z. ICD waveform optimization: a randomized, prospective, pair-sampled multicenter study. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2000. 23(11 Pt 2): 1992–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dennis AJ, Valentino DJ, Walter RJ, Nagy KK, Winners J, Bokhari F, Wiley DE, Joseph KT, Roberts RR. Acute effects of TASER X26 discharges in a swine model. J Trauma 2007; 63(3): 581–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jauchem JR, Sherry CJ, Fines DA, Cook MC. Acidosis, lactate, electrolytes, muscle enzymes, and other factors in the blood of Sus scrofa following repeated TASER (R) exposures. Forensic Sci Int 2006; 161(1): 20–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wu J-Y, Sun H, O'Rourke AP, Huebner S, Rahko PS, Will JA, Webster JG. TASER dart-to-heart distance that causes ventricular fibrillation in pigs. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2007; 54(3): 503–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wu J-Y, Sun H, O'Rourke AP, Huebner S, Rahko PS, Will JA, Webster JG. TASER blunt dart-to-heart distance that causes ventricular fibrillation in pigs. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng December 2008; 55(12).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Adrogue HJ, Madias NE. Management of life-threatening acid-base disorders. First of two parts. N Engl J Med 1998; 338(1): 26–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Walter RJ, Dennis AJ, Valentino DJ, Margeta B, Nagy KK, Bokhari F, Wiley DE, Joseph KT, Roberts RR. TASER X26 discharges in swine produce potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Acad Emerg Med 2008 Jan; 15(1): 66–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sun H. Models of Ventricular Fibrillation Probability and Neuromuscular Stimulation after TASER® Use in Humans, PhD thesis, Dept Elect. Comput. Eng. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin–Madison, 2007.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of Wisconsin

Personalised recommendations