Because of the potential danger of ventricular fibrillation (VF), numerous TASER conducted electrical weapon (CEW) studies have been performed on animals. Holden et al.  injected M26 and X26 TASER waveforms to an electrode on the ventricular epicardial surface of guinea pig isolated hearts, but were unable to induce VF. However, it is known that inducing sustained VF in very small animals (such as guinea pigs) is difficult and impossible for some stimulus paradigms, justifying the need for considering data from larger animals, such as the live pig, more similar to humans, despite the obvious increases in experimental complexity. In addition, pigs are inexpensive and do not have the animal rights concerns attached to them that pet animals such as dogs do. However, anesthetized pigs may have different susceptibility to VF than conscious pigs. Pig studies have focused on whether or not TASER CEW darts on the back or near the heart on the front can cause VF.
KeywordsVentricular Fibrillation Xiphoid Process Safety Index Cocaine Infusion Ventricular Fibrillation Threshold
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