Advertisement

Neuroendocrine Effects of CEWs

  • Donald M. Dawes
  • Mark W. Kroll
Chapter

Conducted electrical weapons (CEW) induce neuromuscular incapacitation and pain by the application of a small electrical current. The electrical current stimulates both afferent sensory neurons causing pain and efferent motor neurons causing involuntary regional skeletal muscle contraction. There has been controversy in the lay press with regard to the use of these weapons and sudden in-custody death. Previous research and field data have supported the assertion that these weapons do not cause instantaneous malignant cardiac arrhythmias from the electrical discharge [2–6].

Keywords

Myocardial Stunning Vasovagal Syncope Defensive Tactic Small Electrical Current Chronic Drug Abuse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Cannon WB. Voodoo death. Psychosom Med, 1957; 19: 182–190.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    McDaniel WC, Stratbucker RA, Nerheim M, et al. Cardiac safety of neuromuscular incapacitating defensive devices. PACE, 2005;28: S284–S287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    McDaniel W, and R Stratbucker. Testing the cardiac rhythm safety of the thoracic application of Tasers. Europace, 2006; 8: 58P23.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Levine SD, Sloane C, Chan T, Vilke G, and J Dunford. Cardiac Monitoring of subjects exposed to the TASER. Acad Emerg Med, 2005; 12 (supplement 1): S71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vilke G, Sloane C, et al. Does the TASER cause electrical changes in twelve lead ECG monitoring of human subjects? Acad Emerg Med, 2007 (Supplement 1); 14: S104.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barnes Jr. D, Winslow J, et al. Cardiac effects of the TASER X26 conducted energy weapon. Ann Emerg Med, 2006; 48(Supplement): 102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ho JD, Miner JR, Lakireddy DR, et al. Cardiovascular and physiologic effects of conducted electrical weapon discharge in resting adults. Acad Emerg Med, 2006; 13: 589–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sloane C, Vilke G, et al. Serum troponin I measurement of subjects exposed to the TASER X26. Acad Emerg Med, 2007 (Supplement 1); 14: S103–S104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vilke G, Sloane C, et al. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of the TASER on human subjects. Acad Emerg Med, 2007 (Supplement 1); 14: S104–S105.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chan T, Sloane C, et al. The impact of the TASER weapon on respiratory and ventilatory function in human subjects. Acad Emerg Med, 2007 (Supplement 1); 14: S191–S192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ho JD, Dawes DM, et al. Respiratory effect of prolonged electrical weapon application on human volunteers. Acad Emerg Med, 2007; 14: 197–201.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hick JL, Smith SW, and MT Lynch. Metabolic acidosis in restraint-associated cardiac arrest: a case series. Acad Emerg Med, 1999; 6: 239–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dawes D, Ho J, Miner J. The neuroendocrine effects of the TASER X26: A brief report. Forensic Sci Int, 2009: in press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wittstein IS, Thiemann DR, Lima JA, Baughman KL, Schulman SP, Gerstenblith G, Wu KC, Rade JJ, Bivalacqua TJ, and HC Champion. Neurohumoral features of myocardial stunning due to sudden emotional stress. N Engl J Med, 2005 Feb 10; 352(6): 539–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stratton J, Halter J, et al. Comparative plasma catecholamine and hemodynamic responses to handgrip, cold pressor and supine bicycle exercise testing in normal subjects. J Am Coll Cardiol, 1983; 2(1): 93–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baron-Esquivias G, Errazquin F, et al. Long-term outcome of patients with vasovagal syncope. Am Heart J, 2004; 147(5): 883–889.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ho JD, Reardon RF, and WG Heegaard. Deaths in police custody: an 8 month surveillance study. Ann Emerg Med, 2005; 46 (suppl): S94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Han D, Kelly K, et al. Cocaine and exercise: temporal changes in plasm levels of catecholamines, lactate, glucose, and cocaine. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 1996; 270: E438–E444.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pacchioni A. et al. A single exposure to restraint stress induces behavioral and neurochemical sensitization to stimulating effects of amphetamine: involvement of NMDA receptors. Ann NY Acd Sci, 2002; 965: 233–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pudiak C, and Bozarth M. Cocaine fatalities increased by restraint stress. Life Sci, 1994; 55: 379–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pacak K, and Palkovits M. Stressor specificity of central neuroendocrine responses: implications for stress-related disorders. Endocrin Rev, 2001; 22(4): 502–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Emergency MedicineLompoc District HospitalLompoc

Personalised recommendations