Prosthetics, Exoskeletons, and Bipedal Ambulators

  • Yoseph Bar-Cohen
  • David Hanson
  • Adi Marom


From the dawn of humanity the inventive use of tools has distinguished us from animals. This trend has accelerated as the number of tools has grown, which has led to even better tools. Writing led to engineering; industrial tools led to automation; and computers led to artificial intelligence. For centuries, our tool-making technologies have also subtly altered our human abilities by augmenting our physical capabilities; extending our lives; helping us communicate and preserve our ideas; and even helping us to solve problems that our unaided minds could not. More profoundly still, our tool making has begun to alter human nature itself, especially with the interaction of the biosciences and new medical technologies.


Cochlear Implant Upper Extremity Prosthetic Hand Artificial Limb Lower Back Injury 
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Books and Articles

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoseph Bar-Cohen
    • 1
  • David Hanson
    • 2
  • Adi Marom
    • 3
  1. 1.California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion LabPasadena
  2. 2.Hanson RoboticsRichardson
  3. 3.New York

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