Air Quality Policy

  • James Irwin
  • Johan Tidblad
  • Vladimir Kucera

There are two main ways to protect cultural heritage objects from air pollution damage. First, by reducing ambient levels of air pollution and second, by instigating local management strategies that either reduce the impact of pollution or repair the damage.


European Union Cultural Heritage Critical Load Cultural Heritage Object Cultural Heritage Material 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



  1. Air Quality Archive (2007) UK air quality archive; action planning practice.php
  2. Amann M, Bertrok I, Cofala J, Heyes C, Klimont Z, Schopp W, Winwarter W (2004) Baseline scenarios for the Clean Air for Europe (CAFÉ) programme. Final report to the European Commission
  3. ApSimon HM, Warren RF, Kayin S (2002) Addressing uncertainty in environmental modelling: a case study of integrated assessment of strategies to combat long-range transboundary air pollution. Atmos Environ 36:5417–5426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldauf R, McDonald J, Heck R, Cook R, Rege J, Audette L, Armstrong J (2004) Management of motor vehicle emissions in the United States. In: Regional and local aspects of air quality management, Chapter 5. WIT Press, Gateshead.Google Scholar
  5. CCE (2005) CCE status report (Posch M, Slootweg J, Hettelingh JP eds) European Critical Loads and Dynamic Modelling. RIVM report 259101016, Bilthoven
  6. COMEAP (2007) Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants ‘Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution: effect on mortality
  7. CORDIS (2007) Community research and development information service.Google Scholar
  8. Defra (2007) The air quality strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (Volume 1). The Stationery Office, London.Google Scholar
  9. EEA (2007a) NOx emissions from motor vehicles
  10. EEA (2007b) Europe’s environment – the fourth assessment. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen
  11. EEA (2007c) Air pollution in Europe 1990–2004. European Environment Agency 2/2007, Copenhagen
  12. EC (2005) The communication on thematic strategy on air pollution and the directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe, impact assessmenté/pdf/ia_report-en050921_final.pdf
  13. EPA (2007a) The plain English guide to the Clean Air Act. US EPA, Research Triangle Park NC
  14. EPA (2007b) National ambient air quality standards. US EPA, Research Triangle Park NC
  15. EU (2007) Directives, environment, air pollution
  16. Europa (2007) European Union air quality standards
  17. Gegisian I (2007) Assessing the contribution of local air quality management to environmental justice in England and Wales. PhD thesis, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol.Google Scholar
  18. Holland M, Watkiss P (2004) Economic assessment of materials damage and the CAFÉ cost-benefit analysis. In: Cultural heritage in the city of tomorrow (Kucera V, Tidblad J, Hamilton R Eds). Swedish Corrosion Institute, Bulletin 110E, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  19. Irwin JG, Duarte-Davidson R, Pollard SJT (2002) Characteristics of environmental harm in the context of air pollution. In: Brebbia CA and Martin-Duque JF (Eds) Air Pollution X, pp 191-199. WIT Press, Southampton.Google Scholar
  20. Kucera V, Fitz S (1995) Direct and indirect air pollution effects on materials including cultural monuments. Water, Air, and Soil pollution 85:153–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mitchell G, Dorling D (2003) An environmental justice analysis of British air quality. Environment and Planning A 35:909–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Multi-Assess (2007) Model for multi-pollutant impact and assessment of threshold levels for cultural heritage. EU 5FP RTD project contract: EVK4-CT-2001-00044.Google Scholar
  23. NEGTAP (2001) Transboundary Air Pollution – acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone in the UK
  24. Nilsson J, Grennfelt P Eds (1988) Critical loads for sulphur and nitrogen. Environmental report 1988:15, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  25. UK Environmental Protection (2007) Guidance on local air quality management
  26. RCEP (1998) Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution 21st report, Setting Environmental Standards
  27. Stedman JR, Maynard RL (2007) Particles as air pollutants 2: particulate matter concentrations in the United Kingdom. Chemical Hazards and Poisons Research 9:27–33.Google Scholar
  28. UNECE (1999) Gothenburg protocol to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. Protocol to the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution.Google Scholar
  29. UNECE (2004) Manual on methodologies and criteria for mapping critical load and levels and air pollution effects, risks and trends
  30. Williams ML (2007) UK air quality in 2050 – synergies with climate change policies. Environmental Science Policy 10:169–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wilsdon J, Willis R (2004) See-through Science. Demos, London.Google Scholar
  32. WHO (2006) WHO air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. Global update 2005, summary of risk assessment. WHO/SDE/PHE/OEH06.02.Google Scholar

Sources of Additional Information

  1. Air pollution climate. Google Scholar
  2. Europe’s environment – the fourth assessment.Google Scholar
  3. Brimblecombe P (1987) The Big Smoke. A history of air pollution in London since medieval times. Routledge, 185 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Air pollution in Europe 1990-2004. Copenhagen: EEA 2/2007.Google Scholar
  5. Policy development. Google Scholar
  6. RCEP (1998) Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution 21st report, Setting Environmental Standards.Google Scholar
  7. European regulatory regime. Google Scholar
  8. EC (2005) The communication on thematic strategy on air pollution and the directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe, COM(2005)446.Google Scholar
  9. Local air quality management. Google Scholar
  10. UK air quality archive action planning.Google Scholar
  11. NSCA local air quality management.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of the West of EnglandBristolUK
  2. 2.Swerea KIMAB ABStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations