Soiling is another simple and familiar concept – we all know (or remember) the blackness of buildings associated with industrial urban cities or the streaked effect on limestone buildings. This chapter looks at the actual mechanisms involved and relates them to atmospheric pollution.
KeywordsTotal Suspend Particulate Building Surface Gypsum Crust Particle Assemblage Uncovered Surface
The authors of this chapter wish to express their appreciation to all the colleagues in the MULTI-ASSESS and CULT-STRAT consortia for their support, provision of data and stimulating discussions.
- Beloin NJ and Haynie FH (1975) Soiling of building materials. J Air Pollut Control Ass. 25, 393–403.Google Scholar
- Creighton NP et al., (1990) Soiling by atmospheric aerosols in an urban industrial area. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 40, 1285–1289.Google Scholar
- Davidson CI, Tang F, Finger S, Etyemezian V and Sherwood SI (2000) Soiling patterns on a tall limestone building: changes over 60 years. Environ Sci Technol. 34, 560–565.Google Scholar
- Del Monte M, Sabbioni C and Vittori O (1981) Airborne carbon particles and marble. deterioration, Atmos Env. 16, 2253–2257.Google Scholar
- Grossi CM and Brimblecombe P (2004) Aesthetics of simulated soiling patters on architecture. Environ Sci Technol. 30, 3971–3976.Google Scholar
- Haynie FH (1986) Theoretical model of soiling of surfaces by airborne particles in aerosols: research, risk assessment and control strategies. In Proceedings of the Second US-Dutch Symposium, ed. Lee SD, Lewis Publishers, Williamsburgh, VA.Google Scholar
- Haynie FH and Lemmons TJ (1990). Particulate matter soiling of exterior paints at a rural site, Aerosol Sci Technol. 13, 353–367.Google Scholar
- Ionescu A, Lefèvre RA, Chabas A, Lombardo T, Ausset P, Candau Y, Rosseman L. (2006). Soiling modelling based on silica-soda-lime glass exposure at six European sites, Sci Total Environ. 369, 246–255.Google Scholar
- Lombardo T, Ionescu A, Lefèvre RA, Chabas A, Ausset P and Cachier H., 2005. Soiling of silica-soda-lime float glass in urban environment: measurements and modelling, Atmos Environ. 39, 989–997.Google Scholar
- Lanting RW (1986). Black smoke and soiling in aerosols: research, risk assessment and control strategies. In Proceedings of the Second US-Dutch Symposium, Ed. Lee SD, Lewis Publishers, Williamsburg, VA.Google Scholar
- Mansfield TA and Hamilton RS (1989). The soiling of materials: models and measurements in a road tunnel. In Proceedings of the 8th World Clean Air Congress. Eds Brasser LJ and Mulder WC. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 353–357.Google Scholar
- MULTI-ASSESS (2007) Model for multi-pollutant impact and assessment of threshold levels for cultural heritage. EU 5FP RTD project contract: EVK4-CT-2001-00044.Google Scholar
- Parker A. (1955) The destructive effect of air pollution on materials. National Smoke Abatement Society. London. pp 3–15.Google Scholar
- Saiz Jimenez C (1993) Deposition of airborne organic pollutants on historic buildings. Atmos Env. 27B, 239–251.Google Scholar
- Spence JW and Haynie FH (1972) Paint technology and air pollution: a survey and economic assessment AP-103 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Pollution Research, Triangle Park, NC, USA.Google Scholar
- Swedish Corrosion Institute (KIMAB) (2006) http://www.corr-institute.se/MULTI-ASSESS.
- Watt J, Jarrett D and Hamilton R (2008) Dose-Response functions for the soiling of materials due to air pollution exposure. Sci Total Env. 400, 415–424.Google Scholar
Sources of Additional Information
- Hinds WC (1999) Aerosol Technology: Properties, behaviour and measurements of airborne particles, 2nd edition. Wiley ISBN 978-0-471-19410-1.Google Scholar
- Verhoef LGW (1988) Soiling and cleaning of building façades. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0412306700.Google Scholar
- Watt J and Hamilton RS (2003) Soiling of buildings by particulate matter. In The Effects of Air `Pollution on the Built Environment. Ed Brimblecombe P. Imperial College Press. London.Google Scholar