Environment, Pollution and Effects

  • Ron Hamilton
  • Helen Crabbe

This chapter will look at the main environmental influences and controls on damage to heritage, which occurs even in the absence of pollution, and also examine the main characteristics and sources of the most important air pollutants that exacerbate this damage or, in some cases, add new types of damage. The types of damage are briefly reviewed at the beginning of the chapter. It is also important to understand the environmental factors that not only influence weathering in the absence of pollution but also are key to the control of pollution damage, and so these are also briefly reviewed.


Nitrogen Oxide Total Suspend Particulate Emission Inventory Road Transport Nitrogen Dioxide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are grateful to DEFRA, EEA and USEPA for giving their permission to use information available in their reports and on their web sites.



  1. Anderson HR 1999, Health effects of air pollution episodes, in: Holgate ST, Samet JM, Koren HS and Maynard RL (eds) Air Pollution and health, Academic Press, London; ISBN 0-12-352335-4.Google Scholar
  2. AQEG 2006, Trends in Primary Nitrogen Dioxide in the UK. Draft report for comment, August 2006. available from
  3. Bailey DLR and Clayton P 1982, The measurement of suspended particle and total carbon concentrations in the atmosphere using standard smoke shade methods, Atmos. Env. 16, 2683–2690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brimblecombe P 2003, The effects of air pollution on the built environment. Imperial College Press, London.Google Scholar
  5. BSI 1969, BS1747 Methods for the measurement of air pollution, Part 2, Determination of the concentration of suspended matter. BSI London.Google Scholar
  6. DEFRA 2004, Nitrogen dioxide in the United Kingdom – report by the Air Quality Expert Group (AQEG) PB9025A.Google Scholar
  7. Friedlander SK 2000, Smoke, dust and haze: fundamentals of aerosol dynamics (second edition), Oxford University Press ISBN-13:978-0-19-512999-1.Google Scholar
  8. Hamilton RS and Mansfield TA 1991, Airborne particulate elemental carbon: its sources, transport and contribution to dark smoke and soiling, Atmos. Env. 25, 715–723.Google Scholar
  9. Harrison RM, Jones AM and Lawrence RG 2004, Major component composition of PM10 and PM2.5 from roadside and urban background sites, Atmos. Env. 38, 4531–4538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hinds WC 1999, Aerosol Technology: properties, behaviour and measurements of airborne particles, 2nd edition. Wiley ISBN 978-0-471-19410-1.Google Scholar
  11. ISAC 2004, Noah’s Ark, Global Climate Change Impact on Built Heritage and Cultural Landscapes.
  12. ISO 1995, Air quality – particle size fraction definitions for health related sampling, ISO 7708, International Organisation for Standardization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  13. NAEI, 2008, United Kingdom National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory.
  14. Saiz-Jimenez C (editor) 2004, Air pollution and cultural heritage. A.A. Balkema Publishers, Taylor & Francis Group plc, London.Google Scholar
  15. USEPA 2008, US-EPA National Emissions Inventory.

Sources of Additional Information

  1. APEG (Airborne Particulate Expert Group) Particulate matter in the United Kingdom. 2005. available from
  2. Colls J, (2002) Air Pollution (Clay’s Library of Health & the Environment), 2nd edition, Spon Press, ISBN 0415255643.Google Scholar
  3. EMEP programme (Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air pollutants in Europe)
  4. European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER)
  5. Friedrich R and Reis S (editors), 2004, Emissions of Air Pollutants: Measurements, Calculations and Uncertainties, Springer ISBN 3-540-00840-3.Google Scholar
  6. Godish T (2003) Air Quality 4th edition, CRC Press, ISBN 9781566705868Google Scholar
  7. Hewitt CN and Jackson A (editors), 2003, Handbook of Atmospheric Science, Wiley, ISBN 9780632052868Google Scholar
  8. National Academy of Sciences (2004) Air Quality Management in the United States , National Academy Press. ISBN 0309089328.Google Scholar
  9. UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory.
  10. UK National Air Quality Information Archive.
  11. Meteorological, emissions, pollution, etc. in Spain Google Scholar
  12. National Level: Spanish Environment Ministry
  13. Meteorological National Institute

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Decision Analysis and Risk Management, School of Health and Social SciencesMiddlesex UniversityThe BurroughsUK

Personalised recommendations