Advertisement

Urban Design and Urban Water Ecosystems

  • Kristina Hill
Chapter

This chapter addresses the role of urban design in the performance of urban water ecosystems, with an emphasis on urban rainwater runoff and future urban infrastructure systems. The main thesis is that new designs must be supported by an integrative framework for analysis and application in order to significantly change overall urban hydrologic performance. Designers, planners, and scientists do not currently share such a framework. A straightforward landscape-based heuristic is proposed here which uses simple categories of hydrological function to sort, map, and propose changes to diverse urban land uses within an urban drainage basin.

Keywords

Network Site Green Roof Urban Design Analytical Frame Urban Stormwater 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author wishes to thank the editor, Larry Baker, and two reviewers, Doug Johnston and Lance Neckar, for suggestions that improved this chapter significantly.

References

  1. Alberti, M., D. Booth, K. Hill, C. Avolio, B. Coburn, S. Coe, and D. Spirandelli. 2007. The impact of urban patterns on aquatic ecosystems: An empirical analysis in Puget lowland sub-basins. Landscape and Urban Planning 80(4):345–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashley, R.M., D.J. Balmforth, A.J. Saul, and J.D. Blanskby. 2005. Flooding in the future: predicting climate change, risks and responses in urban areas. Water Science and Technology 52:265–273. IWA Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Barnett, J. and K. Hil. 2008. Design for Rising Sea Levels. Harvard Design Magazine, Number 27, Winter 2008.Google Scholar
  4. Beach, D. 2002. Coastal Sprawl: The Effects of Urban Design on Aquatic Ecosystems in the United States. Pew Oceans Commission, Arlington, Virginia.Google Scholar
  5. Booth, D. 2005. Challenges and prospects for restoring urban streams: a perspective from the Pacific Northwest of North America. North American Benthological Society 24:724–737.Google Scholar
  6. Botsford, L.W., A. Hastings, and S.D. Gaines. 2001. Dependence of sustainability on the configuration of marine reserves and larval dispersal distance. Ecology Letters 4:144–150, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bureau of Environmental Services (BES). 2006. 2006 Stormwater Management Facility Monitoring Report Summary. Sustainable Stormwater Management Program, Portland, Oregon, September 2006.Google Scholar
  8. EPA. 1999. Combined Sewer Overflow Management Fact Sheet. EPA 832-F-99-041. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., September 1999.Google Scholar
  9. Deutsch, B. 2007. The green build-out model: quantifying the stormwater management benefits of trees and green roofs in Washington, DC. Casey Trees Foundation and LimnoTech, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  10. Gerlach, G., J. Atema, M.K. Kingsford, K.P. Black, and V. Miller-Sims. 2007. Smelling home can prevent dispersal of reef fish larvae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104:858–863.Google Scholar
  11. Gobel, P., C. Dierkes, and W.G. Coldewey. 2007. Storm water runoff concentration matrix for urban areas. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 91: 26–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hill, K. 2002. Urban Design and Ecology. In CASE: Downsview Park Toronto, ed. by Julia Czerniak, Prestel Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Hill, K. 2003. Green Good, Better, Best: Effective ecological design in cities,” Harvard Design Magazine, Number 18, Summer 2003.Google Scholar
  14. Horner, R., H. Lim, S., and Burgess. 2002. Hydrologic monitoring of the Seattle ultra-rrban stormwater management projects. Water Resources Series, Technical Report No. 170, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, September 2002.Google Scholar
  15. Johnson, M.W. 1960. The offshore drift of larvae of the California spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 7:147–161.Google Scholar
  16. Lachmund, J. 2007. Ecology in a walled city: researching urban wildlife in post-war Berlin. Endeavor 31:78–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. London Climate Change Partnership. 2006.Seattle: Managing stormwater, pp. 34–45. In: Adapting to Climate Change: Lessons for London. Greater London Authority, London.Google Scholar
  18. Lynch, K., M. Southworth, and T. Banerjee. 1990. City sense and city design: writings and projects of Kevin Lynch, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  19. Maryland Department of the Environment. “Maryland Stormwater Act of 2007,” http://www.mde.state.md.us/Programs/WaterPrograms/SedimentandStormwater/swm2007.asp, accessed June 2008.
  20. McHarg, I. 1969. Design with Nature, Natural History Press, Garden City, NewYork.Google Scholar
  21. Meyer, E. 1997. Ecological Design and Planning. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Nassauer, J.I. 1995. Messy ecosystems, orderly frames. Landscape Journal 14:161–170.Google Scholar
  23. National Research Council. 2003 Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  24. Novotny, V., and Hill, K. 2007. Diffuse pollution abatement – a key component in the integrated effort towards sustainable urban basins. IWA Publishing, London, UK.Google Scholar
  25. Patel, J. 2005. Briefing: review of CIRIA Report 142 on highway pollutants. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Transport 158(TR3):137–138.Google Scholar
  26. Perkins, B., D. Ojima, and R. Correll. 2007. A Survey of Climate Change Adaptation Planning. The Heinz Center, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  27. Pineda, J., J.A. Hare, and S. Sponaugle. 2007. Larval transport and dispersal in the coastal ocean and consequences for population connectivity. Special Issue on Marine Population Connectivity, Oceanography, 20(3):22–39.Google Scholar
  28. Sukopp, H. 1973. Die Großstadt als Gegenstand Oekologischer Forschung. Schriften des Vereins zur Verbreitung Naturwissenschaftlicher Kenntnis zu Wien. Bericht ueber das 113. Vereinsjahr, 90–139.Google Scholar
  29. Tabor, R., H. Gearns, C. McCoy, and S. Camacho. 2006. Nearshore habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon in lentic systems of the Lake Washington Basin. Annual Report, 2003 and 2004, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Western Washington Fish & Wildlife Office, Lacey, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  30. Tallis, H., Z. Ferdana, and E. Gray. 2008. Linking terrestrial and marine conservation planning and threats analysis. Conservation Biology 22:120–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Transportation Research Board (TRB). 2008. Special Report 290: Potential Impacts of Climate Change on U.S. Transportation. The National Academies, Washington, DC, March 2008.Google Scholar
  32. US EPA. 2007. National Water Quality Inventory: Report to Congress, 2002 Reporting Cycle, EPA 841-R-07-001, October 2007. Google Scholar
  33. Walsh, R., A. Roy, J. Feminella, P. Cottingham, P. Groffman, and R. Morgan. 2005. Urban stream syndrome: current knowledge and the search for a cure. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24:690–705.Google Scholar
  34. Welter, V. 2003. Biopolis: Patrick Geddes and the City of Life. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations