Urban Infrastructure and Use of Mass Balance Models for Water and Salt

  • Paul Westerhoff
  • John Crittenden

Urban infrastructure supplies water to urban areas and drains away sewage and stormwater. These services are critical to the health and prosperity of modern cities. The built infrastructure includes reservoirs, concrete channels, canals, pipes, pumps, and treatment facilities. This infrastructure is usually owned by public entities (cities or water and sewer agencies). Some smaller sized systems are operated by private companies who can adequately train personnel and achieve economies of scale through operating facilities for several localized treatment and distribution systems. Privatization for operations of large-sized water and wastewater systems (i.e., serving >100,000 people) is slowly expanding in the USA, although the cities still own the infrastructure. Public entities bill private residences, commercial and industrial users, etc. to repay the enormous capital investment of this infrastructure, reoccurring replacement and repair and continuous operating expenses.


Total Dissolve Solid Water Demand Reverse Osmosis Vadose Zone Urban Water 
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This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.DEB-0423704, Central Arizona – Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER). Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendation expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Information from the City of Scottsdale, AZ and discussions with their staff is greatly appreciated. Two graduate students (Chi Choi and Peng Zhang) developed the models presented here. Assistance in PowerSim modeling from Ke Li and Tim Lant at Arizona State University are also appreciated.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Westerhoff
    • 1
  • John Crittenden
    • 1
  1. 1.Arizona State UniversityTempeUSA

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