Advertisement

Frequency Control in Emergency Conditions

Chapter
Part of the Power Electronics and Power Systems book series (PEPS)

Following a large generation loss disturbance, a power system’s frequency may drop quickly if the remaining generation no longer matches the load demand. Significant loss of generating the plant without adequate system response can produce extreme frequency excursions outside the working range of plant. As mentioned in Chaps. 1 and 2, large frequency deviations can degrade load performance, overload transmission lines and even lead to system collapse.

Depending on the size of the frequency deviation experienced, emergency control and protection schemes may be required to maintain power system frequency. One method of characterizing frequency deviations experienced by a power system is in terms of the frequency deviation ranges and related control actions shown in Table 2.3. The frequency variation ranges (Δf1, Δf2, Δf3 and Δf4), shown in the table, are identified in terms of different power system operating conditions. The small frequency deviations (Δf1 and Δf2) can be attenuated by...

Keywords

Power System Power Flow System Frequency Emergency Control Frequency Gradient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Kundur, P. 1994.Power System Stability and Control. McGraw-Hill, Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson P. M. Mirheydar, M. 1990.A low-order system frequency response model, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 5, (3)720–729,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson P.M. Fouad, A. A. 1994.Power System Control and Stability, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ:Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sauer P. W. Pai, M. A. 2006.Power System Dynamics and Stability. Stipes, Champaign, IL:Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Padiyar, K. R. 1999.Power Systems Dynamics: Stability and Control. Wiley, New York, NY:Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aik, D. L. H. 2006.A general-order system frequency response model incorporating load shedding: analytic modeling and applications, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 21, (2)709–717,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Hiyama, S. Koga and Y. Yoshimuta, Fuzzy logic based multi-functional load frequency control, In Proceedings of IEEE PES Winter Meeting, vol. 2, pp. 921–926, 2000.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. Hiyama and G. Okabe, Coordinated load frequency control between LFC unit and small sized high power energy capacitor system, In Proceedings of International Conference on Power System Technology, pp. 1229–1233, 2004.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. A. Mohd Zin, H. Mohd Hafiz and W. K. Wong, Static and dynamic under-frequency load shedding: A comparison, International Conference on Power System Technology POWER-CON 2004, Singapore, pp. 941–945, 2004.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Concordia, C. Fink L. H. Poulikkas, G. 1995.Load shedding and on an isolated system, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 10, (3)1467–1472,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grewal, G. S. Konowalec J. W. Hakim, M. 1998.Optimization of a load shedding scheme, IEEE Industry Application Magazine, 4, (4)25–30,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thompson J. G. Fox B. 1994.Adaptive load shedding for isolated power systems, IEE Proceedings-Generation, Transmission, and Distribution, 141, (5)492–496,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anderson P.M. Mirheydar, M. 1992.An adaptive method for setting under-frequency load shedding relays, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 7, (2)647–655,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Bevrani, G. Ledwich and J. J. Ford, On the use of df/dt in power system emergency control, in Proceedings of IEEE Power Systems Conferences and Exposition (CD Record), Seattle, Washington, USA, 2009.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jung, J. Liu, C-C Tanimoto S. L. Vittal, V. 2002.Adaptation in load shedding under vulnerable operating conditions, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 17, (4)1199–1205,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Prasetijo, D. Lachs W. R. Sutanto, D. 1994.A new load shedding scheme for limiting underfrequency, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 9, (3)1371–1378,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Anderson P.M. Mirheydar, M. 1992.An adaptive method for setting underfrequency load shedding relays, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 7, (2)720–729,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chuvyvhin, V. N. Gurov, N. S. Venkata S. S. Brown, R. E. 1996.An adaptive approach to load shedding and spinning reserve control during underfrequency conditions, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 11, (4)1805–1810,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Huang S. J. Huang, C. C. 2000.An adaptive load shedding method with time-based design for isolated power systems, Electric Power Energy Systems, 22, (1)51–58,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Terzija, V. V. 2006.Adaptive underfrequency load shedding based on the magnitude of the disturbance estimation, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 21, (3)1260–1266,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    You H. Vittal, V. 2003.Self-healing in power systems: an approach using islanding and rate of frequency decline-based load shedding, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 18, (1)174–181,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Anderson, P. M. 1999.Power System Protection. IEEE/Wiley, New York, NY:Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    You, H. Vittal V. Yang, Z. 2003.Self-healing in power systems: an approach using islanding and rate of frequency decline-based load shedding, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 18, (1)174–181,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. J. Shih, W. J. Lee, J. C. Gu and Y. H. Moon, Application of df/dt in power system protection and its implementation in microcontroller based intelligent load shedding relay, In Proceedings of Industrial and Commercial Power System Technical Conference, pp. 11–17, 1991.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lee W. J. Gu, J. C. 1989.A microprocessor based intelligent load shedding relay, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 4, 2018–2024,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Durkin, C. J. Eberle J. E. R. Zarakas, P. 1969.An underfrequency relay with frequency decay rate compensation, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, 88, (6)812–820,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Widrevitz B. C. Armington, R. E. 1977.A digital rate-of-change underfrequency protective relay for power systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, 96, (5)1707–1714,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. E. Clarke, Tasmanian Experience with the Use of df/dt Triggering of UFLSs, Final Report, Transend Networks PTY LTD, No. D08/22185, 2008.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Andersson, G. et al. 2005.Causes of the 2003 major grid blackouts in North America and Europe, and recommended means to improve system dynamic performance, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 20, (4)1922–1928,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wehenkel, L. 1999.Emergency control and its strategies, Proceedings of 13th Power System Computation Conference, Trondheim, Norway, pp. 35–48,Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen, J. Thorp J. S. Dobson, I. 2005.Cascading dynamics and mitigation assessment in power system disturbances via a hidden failure model, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 27, 318–326,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Novosel, D. Begovic M. M. Madani, V. 2004.Shedding lights on blackouts, IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 2, (1)32–43,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen, Q. Jiang, C. Qiu W. McCalley, J. D. 2006.Probability models for estimating the probabilities of cascading outages in high-voltage transmission network, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 21, (3)1423–1431,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pourbeik, P. Kundur P. S. Taylor, C. W. 2006.The anatomy of a power grid blackout, IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 4, (5)22–29,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Palaniswamy K. A. Sharma, J. 1985.Optimization load shedding taking into account of voltage and frequency characteristics of loads, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, 104, (6)1342–1348,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Faranda, R. Pievatolo A. Tironi, E. 2007.Load shedding: a new proposal, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 22, (4)2086–2093,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fernandes, T. S. P. Lenzi J. R. Mikilita, M. A. 2008.Load shedding strategies using optimal load flow with relaxation of restrictions, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 23, (2)712–718,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shandilya, A. Gupta H. Sharma, J. 1993.Method for generation rescheduling and load shedding to alleviate line overloads using load optimisation, IEE Proceedings-C, 140, (5)337–342,Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Aponte E. E. Nelson, J. K. 2006.Time optimal load shedding for distributed power systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 21, (1)269–277,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Y. Min, K. Hou, R. Zhang and Q. Tu, A new method for generation shedding and load shedding in power system emergency control, Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004), pp. 210–215, Hong Kong, 2004.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    M. Bronzini, S. Bruno, M. De Benedictis, M. La Scala and A. Bose, Load Shedding scheme for response-based control of transient stability, Proceedings of Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control – VI, Italy, 2004.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    NEMMCO, Power System Incident Report-Friday 13 August 2004, NEMMCO, 2005, Available on-line at: http://www.nemmco.com.au/marketandsystemevents/232–0022.pdf.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

    There are no affiliations available

    Personalised recommendations