The Vertically Organized Brain in Clinical Psychiatric Disorders

  • Leonard F. Koziol
  • Deborah Ely Budding


Neuropsychology has long struggled with issues of diagnosis. As neuropsychologists, we are trained in the language of brain–behavior relationships. However, most patient populations carry diagnoses made through application of behavioral criteria determined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The DSM is decidedly and purposely not brain-related or in any way neuroanatomically based. Although many of the conditions listed in the DSM have cognitive and emotional components, in most instances, these components are not directly measured with cognitive or psychological tests to make the diagnosis. This chapter reviews several disorders that are listed in the DSM-IV. These are behaviorally defined diagnoses. Instead of listing specific cognitive testing criteria, the DSM infers the cognitive and emotional components comprising these conditions through behavioral observations or report. These facts have important implications for neuropsychological testing in that the relationships between DSM behaviorally defined disorders and cognitive, neuropsychological, or psychological tests are not clearly known or documented.


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basal Ganglion Asperger Syndrome Medial Circuit Auditory Hallucination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aarsland, D., & Larsen, J. P. (2003). Diagnosis and treatment of hallucinations and delusions in Parkinson’s disease. In M. A. Bedard, Y. Agid, S. Chouinard, S. Fahn, & A. Korczyn (Eds.), Mental and behavioral dysfunction in movement disorders (pp. 369–382). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, G., & Courchesne, E. (2001). Attention function and dysfunction in autism. Front Bioscience, 6, D105–D119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, G., & Courchesne, E. (2003). Differential effects of developmental cerebellar abnormality on cognitive and motor functions in the cerebellum: An fMRI study of autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 262–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  5. An, S. K., Mataix-Cols, D., Lawrence, N. S., Wooderson, S., Giampietro, V., Speckens, A., et al. (2008). To discard or not to discard: The neural basis of hoarding symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Molecular Psychiatry doi: 10.1038/sj-mp.4002129.Google Scholar
  6. Andreasen, N. C., Nopoulos, P., O’Leary, D. S., Miller, D. D., Wassink, T., & Flaum, M. (1999). Defining the phenotype of schizophrenia: Cognitive dysmetria and its neural mechanisms. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 908–920.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andreasen, N. C., O’Leary, D. S., Cizadlo, T., Arndt, S., Rezai, K., Ponto, L. L., et al. (1996). Schizophrenia and cognitive dysmetria: A positron-emission tomography study of dysfunctional prefrontal–thalamic–cerebellar circuitry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93, 9985–9990.Google Scholar
  8. Andreasen, N. C., Paradiso, S., & O’Leary, D. S. (1998). “Cognitive dysmetria” as an integrative theory of schizophrenia: A dysfunction in cortical-subcortical-cerebellar circuitry? Schizophrenia Bulletin, 24, 203–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Andreasen, N. C., & Pierson, R. (2008). The role of the cerebellum in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 64(2): 81–88.Google Scholar
  10. Antonova, E., Kumari, V., Morris, R., Halari, R., Anilkumar, A., Mehrotra, R., et al. (2005). The relationship of structural alterations to cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: A voxel-based morphometry study. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 457–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ashtari, M., Kumra, S., Bhaskar, S. L., Clarke, T., Thaden, E., Cervellione, K. L., et al. (2005). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A preliminary diffusion tensor imaging study. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 448–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Awh, E., & Vogel, E. K. (2008). The bouncer in the brain. Nature Neuroscience, 11, 5–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baxter, L. R., Clark, E. C., Iqbal, M., & Ackermann, R. F. (2001). Cortcial-subcortical systems in the mediation of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Modeling the brain’s mediation of a classic ’neurosis’. In D. G. Lichter & J. L. Cummings (Eds.), Frontal-subcortical circuits in psychiatric and neurological disorders (pp. 207–230). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bearden, C. E., Hoffman, K. M., & Cannon, T. D. (2001). The neuropsychology and neuroanatomy of bipolar affective disorder: A critical review. Bipolar Disorders, 3, 106–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berquin, P. C., Giedd, J. N., Jacobsen, L. K., Hamburger, S. D., Krain, A. L., Rapoport, J. L., et al. (1998). Cerebellum in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A morphometric MRI study. Neurology, 50, 1087–1093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bigelow, N. O., Turner, B. M., Andreasen, N. C., Paulsen, J. S., O’Leary, D. S., & Ho, B. C. (2006). Prism adaptation in schizophrenia. Brain and Cognition, 61, 235–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boks, M. P., Liddle, P. F., Russo, S., Knegtering, R., & van den Bosch, R. J. (2003). Influence of antipsychotic agents on neurological soft signs and dyskinesia in first episode psychosis. Psychiatry Research, 119, 167–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bradshaw, J. L. (2001). Developmental disorders of the frontostriatal system: Neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and evolutionary perspectives. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis, Inc.Google Scholar
  19. Broring, T., Rommelse, N., Sergeant, J., & Scherder, E. (2008). Sex differences in tactile defensiveness in children with ADHD and their siblings. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 50, 129–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bruno, S. D. (2005). Neuroimaging of bipolar disorder: Emphasis on novel MRI techniques. Epilepsia, 46(Suppl. 4), 14–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bunge, S. A., Dudukovic, N. M., Thomason, M. E., Vaidya, C. J., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2002). Immature frontal lobe contributions to cognitive control in children: Evidence from fMRI. Neuron, 33, 301–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Busatto, G. F., & Kerwin, R. W. (1997). Schizophrenia, psychosis, and the basal ganglia. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20, 897–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carmona, S., Vilarroya, O., Bielsa, A., Tremols, V., Soliva, J. C., Rovira, M., et al. (2005). Global and regional gray matter reductions in ADHD: A voxel-based morphometric study. Neuroscience Letters, 389, 88–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Casey, B. J., Epstein, J. N., Buhle, J., Liston, C., Davidson, M. C., Tonev, S. T., et al. (2007). Frontostriatal connectivity and its role in cognitive control in parent-child dyads with ADHD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 1729–1736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Castellanos, F. X., & Acosta, M. T. (2004). The neuroanatomy of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Review of Neurology, 38(Suppl. 1), S131–S136.Google Scholar
  26. Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., Hamburger, S. D., Marsh, W. L., & Rapoport, J. L. (1996). Brain morphometry in Tourette’s syndrome: The influence of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neurology, 47, 1581–1583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., Marsh, W. L., Hamburger, S. D., Vaituzis, A. C., Dickstein, D. P., et al. (1996). Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 607–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Castellanos, F. X., Lee, P. P., Sharp, W., Jeffries, N. O., Greenstein, D. K., Clasen, L. S., et al. (2002). Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. JAMA, 288, 1740–1748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Catani, M., Jones, D. K., Daly, E., Embiricos, N., Deeley, Q., Pugliese, L., et al. (2008). Altered cerebellar feedback projections in Asperger syndrome. Neuroimage, 41(4), 1184–1191.Google Scholar
  30. Cheon, K. A., Ryu, Y. H., Kim, Y. K., Namkoong, K., Kim, C. H., & Lee, J. D. (2003). Dopamine transporter density in the basal ganglia assessed with [123I]IPT SPET in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 30, 306–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Crespo-Facorro, B., Barbadillo, L., Pelayo-Teran, J. M., & Rodriguez-Sanchez, J. M. (2007). Neuropsychological functioning and brain structure in schizophrenia. International Review of Psychiatry, 19, 325–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cummings, J. L. (1993). The neuroanatomy of depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 54 Suppl, 14–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cummings, J. L., & Mega, M. (2003). Neuropsychiatry and behavioral neuroscience. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Denckla, M. B., & Reiss, A. L. (1997). Prefrontal-subcortical circuits in developmental disorders. In N. A. Krasnegor, G. R. Lyon, & P. S. Goldman-Rakic (Eds.), Development of the prefrontal cortex: Evolution, neurobiology, and behavior (pp. 283–294). Baltimore: P. H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  35. Di Martino, A., Scheres, A., Margulies, D. S., Kelly, A. M., Uddin, L. Q., Shehzad, Z., et al. (2008). Functional connectivity of human striatum: A resting state fMRI study. Cerebral Cortex. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhno41.Google Scholar
  36. Di Michele, F., Prichep, L., John, E. R., & Chabot, R. J. (2005). The neurophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 58, 81–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dockstader, C., Gaetz, W., Cheyne, D., Wang, F., Castellanos, F. X., & Tannock, R. (2008). MEG event-related desynchronization and synchronization deficits during basic somatosensory processing in individuals with ADHD. Behavioral Brain Function, 4(8), doi: 10.1186/1744-9081-4-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Durston, S. (2003). A review of the biological bases of ADHD: What have we learned from imaging studies? Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 9, 184–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Durston, S., Tottenham, N. T., Thomas, K. M., Davidson, M. C., Eigsti, I. M., Yang, Y., et al. (2003). Differential patterns of striatal activation in young children with and without ADHD. Biological Psychiatry, 53, 871–878.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Early, T. S., Reiman, E. M., Raichle, M. E., & Spitznagel, E. L. (1987). Left globus pallidus abnormality in never-medicated patients with schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 84, 561–563.Google Scholar
  41. Easton, N., Marshall, F., Fone, K., & Marsden, C. (2007). Atomoxetine produces changes in cortico-basal thalamic loop circuits: Assessed by phMRI BOLD contrast. Neuropharmacology, 52, 812–826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Edwards, C. R., Newman, S., Bismark, A., Skosnik, P. D., O’Donnell, B. F., Shekhar, A., et al. (2008). Cerebellum volume and eyeblink conditioning in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 162, 185–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Filipek, P. A., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Steingard, R. J., Renshaw, P. F., Kennedy, D. N., & Biederman, J. (1997). Volumetric MRI analysis comparing subjects having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with normal controls. Neurology, 48, 589–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, B. A., & Shaywitz, S. E. (1994). Attention as a process and as a disorder. In G. R. Lyon (Ed.), Frames of reference for the assessment of learning disabilities: New views on measurement issues (pp. 103–116). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Pub. Co.Google Scholar
  45. Foerde, K., Poldrack, R. A., Khan, B. J., Sabb, F. W., Bookheimer, S. Y., Bilder, R. M., et al. (2008). Selective corticostriatal dysfunction in schizophrenia: Examination of motor and cognitive skill learning. Neuropsychology, 22, 100–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fontaine, D., Mattei, V., & Robert, P. H. (2007). Obsessive compulsive disorder and the frontal lobes. In B. L. Miller & J. L. Cummings (Eds.), The human frontal lobes: Functions and disorders (2nd ed., pp. 621–635). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  47. Fontenelle, L. F., Mendlowicz, M. V., Mattos, P., & Versiani, M. (2006). Neuropsychological findings in obsessive-compulsive disorder and its potential implications for treatment. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 2, 11–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Frank, M. J., Scheres, A., & Sherman, S. J. (2007). Understanding decision-making deficits in neurological conditions: Insights from models of natural action selection. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 362, 1641–1654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Frazier, J. A., Ahn, M. S., DeJong, S., Bent, E. K., Breeze, J. L., & Giuliano, A. J. (2005). Magnetic resonance imaging studies in early-onset bipolar disorder: A critical review. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 13, 125–140.Google Scholar
  50. Frey, K. A., & Albin, R. L. (2006). Neuroimaging of Tourette syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology, 21, 672–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fuentes, L. J. (2004). Inhibitory processing in the attentional networks. In M. I. Posner (Ed.), Cognitive neuroscience of attention (pp. 45–55). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  52. Fusar-Poli, P., Perez, J., Broome, M., Borgwardt, S., Placentino, A., Caverzasi, E., et al. (2007). Neurofunctional correlates of vulnerability to psychosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 31, 465–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Galeno, R., Molina, M., Guirao, M., & Isoardi, R. (2004). Severity of negative symptoms in schizophrenia correlated to hyperactivity of the left globus pallidus and the right claustrum. A PET study. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 5, 20–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (2001). Working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia. In S. Salloway, P. F. Malloy & J. D. Duffy (Eds.), The frontal lobes and neuropsychiatric illness (pp. 71–82). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  55. Gowen, E., & Miall, R. C. (2007). Differentiation between external and internal cuing: An fMRI study comparing tracing with drawing. Neuroimage, 36, 396–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Graybiel, A. M. (1997). The basal ganglia and cognitive pattern generators. Schizophrrnia Bulletin, 23, 459–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gunay Kilic, B. (2005). Neuropsychology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Relevant theories and empirical studies. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 16, 113–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Guttman, M., Alpay, M., Chouinard, S., Como, P., Feinstein, A., Leroi, I., et al. (2003). Clinical management of psychosis and mood disorders in Huntington’s disease. In M. A. Bedard, Y. Agid, S. Chouinard, S. Fahn, & A. Korczyn (Eds.), Mental and behavioral dysfunction in movement disorders (pp. 409–426). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hale, T. S., Hariri, A. R., & McCracken, J. T. (2000). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Perspectives from neuroimaging. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 6, 214–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Henn, F. A., & Braus, D. F. (1999). Structural neuroimaging in schizophrenia. An integrative view of neuromorphology. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 249(Suppl. 4), 48–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Herrmann, M. J., Jacob, C., Unterecker, S., & Fallgatter, A. J. (2003). Reduced response-inhibition in obsessive-compulsive disorder measured with topographic evoked potential mapping. Psychiatry Research, 120, 265–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Higgins, E. S., & George, M. S. (2007). The neuroscience of psychiatry: The pathophysiology of behavior and mental illness. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  63. Hill, D. E., Yeo, R. A., Campbell, R. A., Hart, B., Vigil, J., & Brooks, W. (2003). Magnetic resonance imaging correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Neuropsychology, 17, 496–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hirata, K., Tanaka, H., Zeng, X. H., Hozumi, A., & Arai, M. (2006). The role of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in cognitive impairment: A study using event-related potentials. Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology, 59, 49–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Houk, J. C., Bastianen, C., Fansler, D., Fishbach, A., Fraser, D., Reber, P. J., et al. (2007). Action selection and refinement in subcortical loops through basal ganglia and cerebellum. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 362, 1573–1583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Husted, D. S., Shapira, N. A., & Goodman, W. K. (2006). The neurocircuitry of obsessive-compulsive disorder and disgust. Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 30, 389–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hynd, G. W., Hern, K. L., Novey, E. S., Eliopulos, D., Marshall, R., Gonzalez, J. J., et al. (1993). Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and asymmetry of the caudate nucleus. Journal of Child Neurology, 8, 339–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Joyal, C. C., Pennanen, C., Tiihonen, E., Laakso, M. P., Tiihonen, J., & Aronen, H. J. (2004). MRI volumetry of the vermis and the cerebellar hemispheres in men with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 131, 115–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kalashnikova, L. A., Zueva, Y. V., Pugacheva, O. V., & Korsakova, N. K. (2005). Cognitive impairments in cerebellar infarcts. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, 35, 773–779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kates, W. R., Frederikse, M., Mostofsky, S. H., Folley, B. S., Cooper, K., Mazur-Hopkins, P., et al. (2002). MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or Tourette syndrome. Psychiatry Research, 116, 63–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kelly, A. M., Margulies, D. S., & Castellanos, F. X. (2007). Recent advances in structural and functional brain imaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports, 9, 401–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Keri, S. (2008). Interactive memory systems and category learning in schizophrenia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 206–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kile, S. J. (2007). Neuropsychiatric update: Neuroimaging schizophrenia. Psychopharmacological Bulletin, 40, 156–167.Google Scholar
  74. Kim, J. J., Lee, M. C., Kim, J., Kim, I. Y., Kim, S. I., Han, M. H., et al. (2001). Grey matter abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Statistical parametric mapping of segmented magnetic resonance images. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 330–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Konarski, J. Z., McIntyre, R. S., Grupp, L. A., & Kennedy, S. H. (2005). Is the cerebellum relevant in the circuitry of neuropsychiatric disorders? Journal of Psychiatry Neuroscience, 30, 178–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Konrad, K., Neufang, S., Hanisch, C., Fink, G. R., & Herpertz-Dahlmann, B. (2006). Dysfunctional attentional networks in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence from an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 643–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kyriakopoulos, M., Vyas, N. S., Barker, G. J., Chitnis, X. A., & Frangou, S. (2008). A diffusion tensor imaging study of white matter in early-onset schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 519–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lawrence, N. S., An, S. K., Mataix-Cols, D., Ruths, F., Speckens, A., & Phillips, M. L. (2007). Neural responses to facial expressions of disgust but not fear are modulated by washing symptoms in OCD. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 1072–1080.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lawrence, N. S., Wooderson, S., Mataix-Cols, D., David, R., Speckens, A., & Phillips, M. L. (2006). Decision making and set shifting impairments are associated with distinct symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuropsychology, 20, 409–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Laywer, G., Nyman, H., Agartz, I., Arnborg, S., Jonsson, E. G., Sedvall, G. C., et al. (2006). Morphological correlates to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia as studied with Bayesian regression. BMC Psychiatry, 6, 31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lee, K. H., Farrow, T. F., Parks, R. W., Newton, L. D., Mir, N. U., Egleston, P. N., et al. (2007). Increased cerebellar vermis white-matter volume in men with schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatr Research, 41, 645–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lou, H. C., Henriksen, L., Bruhn, P., Borner, H., & Nielsen, J. B. (1989). Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder. Archives of Neurology, 46, 48–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mackie, S., Shaw, P., Lenroot, R., Pierson, R., Greenstein, D. K., Nugent, T. F., III, et al. (2007). Cerebellar development and clinical outcome in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 647–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Malla, A. K., Norman, R. M., Aguilar, O., Carnahan, H., & Cortese, L. (1995). Relationship between movement planning and psychopathology profiles in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 211–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mamah, D., Wang, L., Barch, D., de Erausquin, G. A., Gado, M., & Csernansky, J. G. (2007). Structural analysis of the basal ganglia in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 89, 59–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mayberg, H. (2002). Depression, II: Localization of pathophysiology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McNab, F., & Klingberg, T. (2008). Prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia control access to working memory. Nature Neuroscience, 11, 103–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mega, M., Cummings, J. L., Salloway, S., & Malloy, P. (1997). The limbic system: An anatomic, phylogenetic, and clinical perspective. In S. P. Salloway, P. Malloy, & J. L. Cummings (Eds.), The neuropsychiatry of limbic and subcortical disorders (pp. 3–18). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  89. Menon, V., Adleman, N. E., White, C. D., Glover, G. H., & Reiss, A. L. (2001). Error-related brain activation during a Go/NoGo response inhibition task. Human Brain Mapping, 12, 131–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Menon, V., Anagnoson, R. T., Glover, G. H., & Pfefferbaum, A. (2001). Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for disrupted basal ganglia function in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 646–649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Miller, R. (2008). A theory of the basal ganglia and their disorders. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  92. Monkul, E. S., Hatch, J. P., Sassi, R. B., Axelson, D., Brambilla, P., Nicoletti, M. A., et al. (2008). MRI study of the cerebellum in young bipolar patients. Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 32, 613–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Monkul, E. S., Malhi, G. S., & Soares, J. C. (2005). Anatomical MRI abnormalities in bipolar disorder: Do they exist and do they progress? The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 222–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mostofsky, S. H., Cooper, K. L., Kates, W. R., Denckla, M. B., & Kaufmann, W. E. (2002). Smaller prefrontal and premotor volumes in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 785–794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Nigg, J. T., & Casey, B. J. (2005). An integrative theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder based on the cognitive and affective neurosciences. Developmental Psychopathology, 17, 785–806.Google Scholar
  96. Nudmamud-Thanoi, S., Piyabhan, P., Harte, M. K., Cahir, M., & Reynolds, G. P. (2007). Deficits of neuronal glutamatergic markers in the caudate nucleus in schizophrenia. Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementum, 281–285.Google Scholar
  97. Okugawa, G., Nobuhara, K., Minami, T., Takase, K., Sugimoto, T., Saito, Y., et al. (2006). Neural disorganization in the superior cerebellar peduncle and cognitive abnormality in patients with schizophrenia: A diffusion tensor imaging study. Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 30, 1408–1412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Okugawa, G., Nobuhara, K., Minami, T., Tamagaki, C., Takase, K., Sugimoto, T., et al. (2004). Subtle disruption of the middle cerebellar peduncles in patients with schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiology, 50, 119–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Okugawa, G., Nobuhara, K., Sugimoto, T., & Kinoshita, T. (2005). Diffusion tensor imaging study of the middle cerebellar peduncles in patients with schizophrenia. Cerebellum, 4, 123–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Overmeyer, S., Bullmore, E. T., Suckling, J., Simmons, A., Williams, S. C., Santosh, P. J., et al. (2001). Distributed grey and white matter deficits in hyperkinetic disorder: MRI evidence for anatomical abnormality in an attentional network. Psychological Medicine, 31, 1425–1435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Overmeyer, S., & Taylor, E. (2000). Neuroimaging in hyperkinetic children and adults: An overview. Pediatric Rehabilitation, 4, 57–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Pelphrey, K., Adolphs, R., & Morris, J. P. (2004). Neuroanatomical substrates of social cognition dysfunction in autism. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 10, 259–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pennington, B. (1997). Dimensions of executive functions in normal and abnormal development. In N. A. Krasnegor, G. R. Lyon, & P. S. Goldman-Rakic (Eds.), Development of the prefrontal cortex. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
  104. Peter, H. S., Brent, M. M., Phillip, H. W., Emily, C. B., & Michele, U. (2005). Current pathophysiological findings in bipolar disorder and in its subtypes. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 1, 75–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Phillips, M.L., Ladoucer, C.D., Drevets, W.C. (2008). A neural model of voluntary and automatic emotion regulation: implications for understanding the pathophysiology and neurodevelopment of bipolar disorder. Molecular psychiatry, 13, 833–857.Google Scholar
  106. Phillips, M. L., Marks, I. M., Senior, C., Lythgoe, D., O’Dwyer, A. M., Meehan, O., et al. (2000). A differential neural response in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with washing compared with checking symptoms to disgust. Psychological Medicine, 30, 1037–1050.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Picard, H., Amado, I., Mouchet-Mages, S., Olie, J. P., & Krebs, M. O. (2008). The role of the cerebellum in schizophrenia: An update of clinical, cognitive, and functional evidences. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 155–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Price, G., Cercignani, M., Parker, G. J., Altmann, D. R., Barnes, T. R., Barker, G. J., et al. (2008). White matter tracts in first-episode psychosis: A DTI tractography study of the uncinate fasciculus. Neuroimage, 39, 949–955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pujol, J., Soriano-Mas, C., Alonso, P., Cardoner, N., Menchon, J. M., Deus, J., et al. (2004). Mapping structural brain alterations in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 720–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rapoport, J. L., Castellanos, F. X., Gogate, N., Janson, K., Kohler, S., & Nelson, P. (2001). Imaging normal and abnormal brain development: New perspectives for child psychiatry. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 272–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rapoport, J. L., & Shaw, P. (2008). Defining the contribution of genetic risk to structural and functional anomalies in ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 2–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ravizza, S. M., McCormick, C. A., Schlerf, J. E., Justus, T., Ivry, R. B., & Fiez, J. A. (2006). Cerebellar damage produces selective deficits in verbal working memory. Brain, 129, 306–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ray Li, C. S., Yan, P., Sinha, R., & Lee, T. W. (2008). Subcortical processes of motor response inhibition during a stop signal task. Neuroimage, 41(4), 1352–1363.Google Scholar
  114. Reichenberg, A., & Harvey, P. D. (2007). Neuropsychological impairments in schizophrenia: Integration of performance-based and brain imaging findings. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 833–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Richardson, E. D. & Malloy, P. F. (2001). The frontal lobes and content specific delusions. In S. Salloway, P. F. Malloy & J. D. Duffy (Eds.), The frontal lobes and neuropsychiatric illness (pp. 125–137). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  116. Remijnse, P. L., Heuvel, O. A., & Veltman, D. J. (2005). Neuroimaging in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Current Medical Imaging Reviews, 1, 331–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ropacki, S. A. & Perry, W. (2007). Frontal lobe functioning in schizophrenia. In B. L. Miller & J. L. Cummings (Eds.), The human frontal lobes: Functions and disorders (2nd ed., pp. 597–613). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  118. Rose, S. E., Chalk, J. B., Janke, A. L., Strudwick, M. W., Windus, L. C., Hannah, D. E., et al. (2006). Evidence of altered prefrontal-thalamic circuitry in schizophrenia: An optimized diffusion MRI study. Neuroimage, 32, 16–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rubia, K. (2007). Neuro-anatomic evidence for the maturational delay hypothesis of ADHD. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 19663–19664.Google Scholar
  120. Rumsey, J. M. (1996). Neuroimaging studies of autism. In G. R. Lyon & J. M. Rumsey (Eds.), Neuroimaging: A window to the neurological foundations of learning and behavior in children (pp. 119–146). Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
  121. Rumsey, J. M., & Ernst, M. (2000). Functional neuroimaging of autistic disorders. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 6, 171–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rusch, N., Spoletini, I., Wilke, M., Bria, P., Di, P. M., Di, I. F., et al. (2007). Prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar gray matter networks and executive functioning in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 93, 79–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sax, K. W., Strakowski, S. M., Zimmerman, M. E., Delbello, M. P., Keck, P. E., Jr., & Hawkins, J. M. (1999). Frontosubcortical neuroanatomy and the continuous performance test in mania. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 139–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Scherder, E. J., Rommelse, N. N., Broring, T., Faraone, S. V., & Sergeant, J. A. (2008). Somatosensory functioning and experienced pain in ADHD-families: A pilot study. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2007.11.004.Google Scholar
  125. Schmahmann, J. D. (2004). Disorders of the cerebellum: Ataxia, dysmetria of thought, and the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. Journal of Neuropsychiatry Clinical Neurosciences, 16, 367–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Schmahmann, J. D., Weilburg, J. B., & Sherman, J. C. (2007). The neuropsychiatry of the cerebellum—insights from the clinic. Cerebellum, 6, 254–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Seok, J. H., Park, H. J., Chun, J. W., Lee, S. K., Cho, H. S., Kwon, J. S., et al. (2007). White matter abnormalities associated with auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: A combined study of voxel-based analyses of diffusion tensor imaging and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Psychiatry Research, 156, 93–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Shaw, P., Eckstrand, K., Sharp, W., Blumenthal, J., Lerch, J. P., Greenstein, D., et al. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 19649–19654.Google Scholar
  129. Shaw, P., Lerch, J., Greenstein, D., Sharp, W., Clasen, L., Evans, A., et al. (2006). Longitudinal mapping of cortical thickness and clinical outcome in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 540–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Silk, T., Vance, A., Rinehart, N., Bradshaw, J., & Cunnington, R. (2008). Dysfunction in the fronto-parietal network in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An fMRI study. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 2, 123–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Skelly, L. R., Calhoun, V., Meda, S. A., Kim, J., Mathalon, D. H., & Pearlson, G. D. (2008). Diffusion tensor imaging in schizophrenia: Relationship to symptoms. Schizophrenia Research, 98, 157–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Stern, E. R., Blair, C., & Peterson, B. S. (2008). Inhibitory deficits in Tourette’s syndrome. Developmental Psychobiology, 50, 9–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Stern, E., Silbersweig, D. A., Chee, K. Y., Holmes, A., Robertson, M. M., Trimble, M., et al. (2000). A functional neuroanatomy of tics in Tourette syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 741–748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Strakowski, S. M., Delbello, M. P., & Adler, C. M. (2005). The functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: A review of neuroimaging findings. Molecular Psychiatry, 10, 105–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Takarae, Y., Minshew, N. J., Luna, B., & Sweeney, J. A. (2007). Atypical involvement of frontostriatal systems during sensorimotor control in autism. Psychiatry Research, 156, 117–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Thielscher, A., & Pessoa, L. (2007). Neural correlates of perceptual choice and decision making during fear-disgust discrimination. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 2908–2917.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Thomann, P. A., Schlafer, C., Seidl, U., Santos, V. D., Essig, M., & Schroder, J. (2008). The cerebellum in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease—A structural MRI study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 42(14), 1198–1202.Google Scholar
  138. Tolin, D. F., Kiehl, K. A., Worhunsky, P., Book, G. A., & Maltby, N. (2008). An exploratory study of the neural mechanisms of decision making in compulsive hoarding. Psychological Medicine, 1–12.Google Scholar
  139. Tracy, D. K., & Shergill, S. S. (2006). Imaging auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 18, 71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Uhlikova, P., Paclt, I., Vaneckova, M., Morcinek, T., Seidel, Z., Krasensky, J., et al. (2007). Asymmetry of basal ganglia in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, 28, 604–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Vaidya, C. J., Austin, G., Kirkorian, G., Ridlehuber, H. W., Desmond, J. E., Glover, G. H., et al. (1998). Selective effects of methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A functional magnetic resonance study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95, 14494–14499.Google Scholar
  142. Vaidya, C. J., Bunge, S. A., Dudukovic, N. M., Zalecki, C. A., Elliott, G. R., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2005). Altered neural substrates of cognitive control in childhood ADHD: Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1605–1613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Valera, E. M., Faraone, S. V., Murray, K. E., & Seidman, L. J. (2007). Meta-analysis of structural imaging findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 1361–1369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. van Meel, C. S., Oosterlaan, J., Heslenfeld, D. J., & Sergeant, J. A. (2005). Motivational effects on motor timing in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 451–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Varambally, S., Venkatasubramanian, G., Thirthalli, J., Janakiramaiah, N., & Gangadhar, B. N. (2006). Cerebellar and other neurological soft signs in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114, 352–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Voeller, K. K. (2004). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of Child Neurology, 19, 798–814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Volpe, U., Federspiel, A., Mucci, A., Dierks, T., Frank, A., Wahlund, L. O., et al. (2008). Cerebral connectivity and psychotic personality traits: A diffusion tensor imaging study. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 258(5), 292–299.Google Scholar
  148. Wechsler, D. (2003). Simulated items similar to those in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). NCS Pearson, Inc. Reproduced with permission. All rights reserved.Google Scholar
  149. Weickert, T. W., Terrazas, A., Bigelow, L. B., Malley, J. D., Hyde, T., Egan, M. F., et al. (2002). Habit and skill learning in schizophrenia: Evidence of normal striatal processing with abnormal cortical input. Learning and Memory, 9, 430–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Weidenheim, K. M., Goodman, L., Dickson, D. W., Gillberg, C., Rastam, M., & Rapin, I. (2001). Etiology and pathophysiology of autistic behavior: Clues from two cases with an unusual variant of neuroaxonal dystrophy. Journal of Child Neurology, 16, 809–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Westenberg, H. G., Fineberg, N. A., & Denys, D. (2007). Neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Serotonin and beyond. CNS Spectrums, 12, 14–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Whalley, H. C., Gountouna, V. E., Hall, J., McIntosh, A., Whyte, M. C., Simonotto, E., et al. (2007). Correlations between fMRI activation and individual psychotic symptoms in un-medicated subjects at high genetic risk of schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry, 7, doi: 10.1186/1471-244x-7-61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Willis, W. G., & Weiler, M. D. (2005). Neural substrates of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Electroencephalographic and magnetic resonance imaging evidence. Developmental Neuropsychology, 27, 135–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Woodruff, P. W. (2004). Auditory hallucinations: Insights and questions from neuroimaging. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 9, 73–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Yaryura-Tobias, J. A., Rabinowitz, D. C., & Neziroglu, F. (2003). Possible basal ganglia pathology in children with complex symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64, 1495–1501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Zald, D. H., & Kim, S. W. (2001). The orbitofrontal cortex. In S. P. Salloway, P. F. Malloy, & J. D. Duffy (Eds.), The frontal lobes and neuropsychiatric illness (pp. 33–70). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  157. Zametkin, A. J., Nordahl, T. E., Gross, M., King, A. C., Semple, W. E., Rumsey, J., et al. (1990). Cerebral glucose metabolism in adults with hyperactivity of childhood onset. The New England Journal of Medicine, 323, 1361–1366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Park RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Manhattan BeachUSA

Personalised recommendations