Thick Filament Diseases
Hereditary myosin myopathies are a newly emerged group of diseases caused by mutations in skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (MyHC) genes. The phenotypes of these diseases are varied, ranging from prenatal nonprogressive arthrogrypotic syndromes to adult-onset progressive muscle weakness. They are caused by mutations in skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (MyHC) genes. Mutations have been reported in two of three MyHC isoforms expressed in adult limb skeletal muscle: type I (slow/β-cardiac MyHC; MYH7) and type IIa (MYH2). Most of the mutations described in MYH7 are associated with hypertrophic/dilated cardiomyopathy, with no skeletal muscle involvement. However, some mutations are associated with two distinct skeletal myopathies, namely Laing distal myopathy and myosin storage myopathy. Although initially thought not to have associated cardiac involvement, recent reports have indicated co-existent cardiac and skeletal muscle disease can occur in both. A myopathy associated with a specific mutation in MYH2 is associated with congenital joint contractures and external ophthalmoplegia. Mutations in embryonic MyHC (MYH3) and perinatal MyHC (MYH8) are associated with distal arthrogryposis syndromes with no or minor muscle weakness. This may be expected in myosin isoforms expressed predominantly during muscle development. Clinical findings, muscle morphology and molecular genetics in hereditary myosin myopathies are summarized in this chapter.
KeywordsDistal Myopathy Skeletal Myopathy Skeletal Muscle Disease Hyaline Body Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy
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