Advertisement

Accommodating Child Witnesses in the Criminal Justice System: Implications for Death Penalty Cases

  • Jodi A. Quas
  • Bradley D. McAuliff

Keywords

Child Sexual Abuse Criminal Justice System Support Person Criminal Case Child Victim 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bach, L. J. (2006, July 21). Crystal Figueroa: Charges stand in girl’s death. Las Vegas Review Journal. Retrieved February 9, 2008, from: www.reviewjournal.com/lvrj_home/2006/Jul-21-Fri-2006/ news/8612341.html.
  2. Batterman-Faunce, J., & Goodman, G. (1993). Effects of context on the accuracy and suggestibility of child witnesses. In G. Goodman & B. Bottoms (Eds.), Child victims, child witnesses (pp.310–330). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  3. Berliner, L., & Conte, J. R. (1995). The effects of disclosure and intervention on sexually abused children. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 371–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bill, D. F. (1995). The effect of testifying in court on children who have been sexually abused. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. The Fielding Institute.Google Scholar
  5. Bothwell, R., Deffenbacher, K., & Brigham, J. (1987). Correlation of eyewitness accuracy and confidence: Optimality hypothesis revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 691–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bottoms, B. L., Quas, J. A., & Davis, S. L. (2007). The influence of the interviewer-provided social support on children’s suggestibility, memory, and disclosures. In M. E. Pipe, M. Lamb, Y. Orbach, & A. C. Cedarborg (Eds.), Child sexual abuse: Disclosure, delay, and denial. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  7. Block, S., Oran, D., Oran, H., Baumrind, N., & Goodman, G. S. (in press). Abused and neglected children in court: Knowledge and attitudes. Child Abuse and Neglect.Google Scholar
  8. Brennan, M., & Brennan, R. E. (1988). Strange language: Child victims under cross-examination (3rd ed.). Wagga Wagga, New South Wales: Charles Sturt University-Riverina.Google Scholar
  9. Burgess, A.W., & Holmstrom, L.L. (1975). Sexual trauma of children and adolescents: Pressure, sex, and secrecy. Nursing Clinics of North America, 10, 551–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Burnett, D. M., Noblin, C. D., & Prosser, V. (2004). Adjudicative competency in juvenile population. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 31(4), 438–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bussey, B., & Grimbeek, E. J. (1995). Disclosure processes: Issues for child sexual abuse victims. In K. J. Rottenberg (Ed.), Diclosure processes in children and adolescence (pp. 166–203). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Carter, C. A., Bottoms, B. L., & Levine, M. (1996). Linguistic and socioemotional influences on the accuracy of children’s reports. Law and Human Behavior, 20, 335–358.Google Scholar
  13. Cascardi, M., Poythress, N. G., & Hall, A. (2000). Procedural justice in the context of civil commitment: An analogue study. Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 18, 731–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Case, R. (1991). The mind’s staircase. Exploring the conceptual underpinnings of children’s thought and knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  15. Cashmore, J. (1992). The use of closed-circuit television for child witnesses in the ACT. Sydney, New South Wales: Australian Law Reform Commission.Google Scholar
  16. Cauffman, E., & Steinberg, L. (2000). (Im)maturity of judgment in adolescence: Why adolescents may Be less culpable than adults. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 18, 741–760.Google Scholar
  17. Compas, B. E., Connor-Smith, J. K., Saltzman, H., Thomsen, A. H., & Wadsworth, M. E. (2001). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence: Problems, progress, and potential in theory and research. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 87–127.Google Scholar
  18. Conte, J. R., & Schuerman, J. R. (1987). The effects of sexual abuse on children: A multidimensional view. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 380–390.Google Scholar
  19. Cooper, D. K. (1997). Juveniles’ understanding of trial-related information: Are they competent defendants? Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 15(2), 167–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coy v. Iowa, 487 U.S. 1012 (1988).Google Scholar
  21. Crawford v. Washington, 541 U.S. 36 (2004).Google Scholar
  22. Crawford, E., & Bull, R. (2006) Teenagers’ difficulties with key words regarding the criminal court process. Psychology, Crime, and Law, 12, 653–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cross, T. P., Jones, L. M., Simone, M., & Kolko, D. (2007). Child forensic interviewing in Children’s Advocacy Centers: Empirical data on a practice model. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31, 1031–1052.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cross T. P., Jones L. M., Walsh W. A., Simone M., & Kolko D. (2007). Child forensic interviewing in Children’s Advocacy Centers: Empirical data on a practice model. Child Abuse & Neglect, 10, 1031–1052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cross, T. P., Jones, L. J., Walsh, W., Simone, M., Kolko, D. J., Szczepanski, J., Lippert, T., Davison, K., Cryns, A., Sosnowski, P., Shadoin, A., & Magnuson, S. (2008). The multi-site evaluation of children’s advocacy centers: Overview of the results and implications for practice. OJJDP Crimes Against Children Series Bulletin. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  26. Davies, G.M., & Noon, E. (1991). An evaluation of the live link for child witnesses. London, England: Home Office.Google Scholar
  27. Davies, G., & Noon, E. (1993). Video links: Their impact on child witness trials. Issues in Criminological & Legal Psychology, 20, 22–26.Google Scholar
  28. Eaton, T., Ball, P. J., & O’Callaghan, M. G. (2001). Child-witness and defendant credibility: Child evidence presentation mode and judicial instructions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 1845–1858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eltringham, S., & Aldridge, J. (2000). The extent of children’s knowledge of court as estimated by guardians ad litem. Child Abuse Review, 9, 375–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Everson, M., Hunter, W., Runyan, D. K., Edelsohn G., & Coulter M. (1989). Maternal support following disclosure of incest. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 197–207.Google Scholar
  31. Faller, K. C., & Palusci, V. J. (2007). Children’s advocacy centers: Do they lead to positive case outcomes? Child Abuse and Neglect, 31, 1021–1029.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Flin, R. H., Stevenson, Y., & Davies, G. M. (1989). Children’s knowledge of court proceedings. British Journal of Psychology, 80, 285–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Freshwater, K., & Aldridge, J. (1994). The knowledge and fears about court of child witnesses, schoolchildren, and adults. Child Abuse Review, 3, 183–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Glaser, D., & Spencer, J. R. (1990). Sentencing, children’s evidence and children’s trauma. Criminal Law Review, June, 371–382.Google Scholar
  35. Giles v. California, No. 07–6053 (US Sup. Ct., cert. granted Jan 11, 2008).Google Scholar
  36. Globe Newspaper Co. v. Superior Court, 457 U.S. 596 (1982).Google Scholar
  37. Goodman, G. S., Myers, J. E. B., Qin, J., Quas, J. A., Castelli, P., Redlich, A. D., & Rogers, L. (2006). Hearsay versus children’s testimony: Effects of truthful and deceptive statements on jurors’ decisions. Law and Human Behavior, 30, 363–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Goodman, G. S., Quas, J. A., Batterman-Faunce, J. M., Riddlesberger, M. M., & Kuhn, G. (1997). Children’s reactions to and memory for a stressful event: Influences of age, anatomical dolls, knowledge, and parental attachment. Applied Developmental Science, 1, 54–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Goodman, G. S., Quas, J. A., Bulkley, J., Shapiro, C. (1999). Innovations for child witnesses: A national survey. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 5, 255–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Goodman, G. S., Taub, E. P., Jones, D. P. H., England, P., Port, L. K., Rudy, L., & Prado, L. (1992). Testifying in criminal court: Emotional effects of child sexual assault victims. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 57 (Serial No. 229).Google Scholar
  41. Goodman, G. S., Tobey, A. E., Batterman-Faunce, J. M., Orcutt, H., Thomas, S., Shapiro, C. & Sachsenmaier, T. (1998). Face-to-face confrontation: Effects of closed circuit-technology on children’s eyewitness testimony and jurors’ decisions. Law and Human Behavior, 22, 165–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gray, E. (1993). Unequal justice: The prosecution of child sexual abuse. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  43. Grisso, T., Steinberg, L., Woolard, J., Cauffman, E., Scott, E., Graham, S., Lexcen, F., Reppucci, N. D., & Schwartz, R. (2003). Juveniles’ competence to stand trial: A comparison of adolescents’ and adults’ capacities as trial defendants. Law and Human Behavior, 27, 333–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Harbeck-Weber, C., & McKee, D.H. (1995). Prevention of emotional and behavioral distress in children experiencing hospitalization and chronic illness. In M. C. Roberts (Ed.), Handbook of pediatric psychology (2nd ed., pp. 167–184). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  45. Herman, J. L. (1981). Father-daughter incest. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Herman, J., & Hirschman, L. (1981). Families at risk for father-daughter incest. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138(7), 967–970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Jones, L. M., Walsh, W. A., & Cross, T. P. (2007). Do Children’s Advocacy Centers improve families’ experiences of child sexual abuse investigations? Child Abuse and Neglect, 31, 1069–1085.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Katz, S., & Mazur, M. A. (1979). The false rape report. In S. Katz & M. A. Mazur (Eds.), Understanding the rape victim (pp. 205–214). New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  49. Keeney, K. S., Amacher, E., & Kastanakis, J. A. (1992). The court prep group: A vital part of the court process. In H. Dent & R. Flin (Eds.), Children as witnesses (pp. 201–209). Chichester, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  50. Lind, E. A., & Tyler, T. R. (1988). The social psychology of procedural justice. N.Y.: Plenum.Google Scholar
  51. Lindsay, R. C. L., Ross, D. F., Lea, J. A., & Carr, C. (1995). What’s fair when a child testifies? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25, 870–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. MacDonald, A. P. (1971). Internal-external locus of control: Parental antecedents. Journal of Consulting & Counseling Psychology, 37, 141–147.Google Scholar
  53. Malloy, L., Lyon, T. D., & Quas, J. A. (2007). Filial dependency and recantation of child sexual abuse allegations. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 162–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Maryland v. Craig (1990). 497 U.S. 836, 110 S. Ct. 3157.Google Scholar
  55. McAuliff, B. D., & Kovera, M. B. (2002). The status of evidentiary and procedural innovations in child abuse proceedings. In B. L. Bottoms, M. B. Kovera, & B. D. McAuliff (Eds.), Children, social science, and the law (pp. 412–445). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  56. McAuliff, B. D., Maurice, K. A., Neal, E. S., & Diaz, A. (2008). “She should have been more upset.”: Expectancy violation theory and jurors’ perceptions of child victims. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, Jacksonville, FL.Google Scholar
  57. McAuliff, B. D., & Nicholson, E., Amarilio, D., & Ravanshenas, D. (2008). Supporting children in legal proceedings: Descriptive data from a national survey of victim/witness advocates. Manuscript under review. Google Scholar
  58. Murray, K. (1995). Live television link: An evaluation of its use by child witnesses in Scottish criminal trials. Edinburgh, Scotland: Scottish Office, Central Research Unit.Google Scholar
  59. Nathanson, R., & Saywitz, K. (2003). The effects of the courtroom context on children’s memory and anxiety. The Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 31, 67–98.Google Scholar
  60. National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse (2006, May). Legislation regarding the use of closed-circuit television testimony in criminal child abuse proceedings. Retrieved February 9, 2008, from http://www.ndaa.org/pdf/ncpca_statute_tv_testimony_ may_06.pdf.
  61. National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse (2006, July). Legislation regarding the admissibility of videotaped interviews/statements in criminal child abuse proceedings. Retrieved February 9, 2008, from: http://www.ndaa.org/pdf/ncpca_statute_videotaped _interviews_july_06.pdf.
  62. National Children’s Alliance (2006). Joining hands together to protect children: National Children’s Alliance 2005 annual report. Washington D.C.: NCA. New York v. Ferber, 458 U.S. 747 (1982).Google Scholar
  63. Oates, R. K., & Tong, L. (1987). Sexual abuse of children: An area with room for professional reforms. The Medical Journal of Australia, 147, 544–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Orange County District Attorney (n.d.) People v. Alejandro Avila. Retrieved February 9, 2008, from: http://www.orangecountyda.com/home/index.asp?page = 337.
  65. Orbach, Y., Hershkowitz, I., Lamb, M. E., Sternberg, K. J., Esplin, P. W., & Horowitz, D. (2000). Assessing the valuye of structured protocols for forensic interviews of alleged abuse victims. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23, 91–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Orth, U., & Maercker, A. (2004). Do trials of perpetrators retraumatize crime victims? Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 221–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Perry, N. W., McAuliff, B. D., Tam, P., & Claycomb, L. (1995). When lawyers question children: Is justice served? Law and Human Behavior, 19, 609–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Phillips, A., & Jacobsen, J. (2008). The Crawford outline: Cases interpreting Crawford v. Washington. Alexandria, VA: National District Attorneys Association.Google Scholar
  69. Prince v. Massachusetts, 211 U.S. 158 (1944).Google Scholar
  70. Quas, J. A., Bauer, A B., & Boyce, W. T. B. (2004). Emotion, reactivity, and memory in early childhood. Child Development, 75, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Quas, J. A., & Lench, H. C. (2007). The effects of emotion, physiological reactivity, and context on children’s memory. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 289–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Quas, J. A., Goodman, G. S., Ghetti, S., Alexander, K., Edelstein, R., Redlich, A., Cordon, I., & Jones, D. P. H. (2005). Childhood sexual assault victims: Long-term outcomes after testifying in criminal court. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70, Serial No. 280. Google Scholar
  73. Quas, J. A., Wallin, A. R., Horwitz, B., Davis, E., & Lyon, T. D. (in press). Maltreated children’s understanding of and emotional reactions to dependency court involvement. Behavioral Sciences and the Law. Google Scholar
  74. Ross, D. F., Hopkins, S., Hanson, E., Lindsay, R. C. L., Hazen, K., & Eslinger, T. (1994). The impact of protective shields and videotape testimony on conviction rates in a simulated trial of child sexual abuse. Law and Human Behavior, 18, 553–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Runyan, D. K., Everson, M. D., Edelsohn, G. A., Hunter, W. M., & Coulter, M. L. (1988). Impact of legal intervention on sexually abused children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 113, 647–653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Santtila, P., Korkman, J., & Sandnabba, K. (2004). Effects of interview phase, repeated interviewing, presence of a support person, and anatomically detailed dolls on child sexual abuse interviews. Psychology, Crime, and Law, 10, 21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sas, L. D. (1991). Reducing the system-induced trauma for child sexual abuse victims through court preparation, assessment and follow-up (Final Report, Project No. 4555–1–125, National Welfare Grants Division, Health and Welfare Canada). London, Ontario: London Family Court Clinic.Google Scholar
  78. Sas, L. D. (1993). Three years after the verdict: A longitudinal study of the social and psychological adjustment of child witnesses referred to the child witness project (Final Report, Project No. 4887–06–91–026 to the Family Violence Prevention Division of Health Canada). London, Ontario: London Family Court Clinic.Google Scholar
  79. Saywitz, K., Jaenicke, C., & Camparo, L. (1990). Children’s knowledge of legal terminology. Law and Human Behavior, 14, 523–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Saywitz, K. J., & Nathanson, R. (1993). Children’s testimony and their perceptions of stress in and out of the courtroom. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 613–622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Saywitz, K., & Snyder, L. (1993). Improving children’s testimony with preparation. In G. S. Goodman & B. L. Bottoms (Eds.), Child victims, child witnesses: Understanding and improving testimony. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  82. Saywitz, K. J., & Snyder, L. (1996). Narrative elaboration: Test of a new procedure for interviewing children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 1347–1357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shore, M. (1985). The clinician as advocate-intervention in court setting: Opportunities, responsibilities and hazards. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 14, 236–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sigler, R. T., Crowley, J. M., & Johnson, I. (1990). Judicial and prosecutorial endorsement of innovative techniques in the trial of domestic abuse cases. Journal of Criminal Justice, 18, 443–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Snyder v. Massachusetts, 291 U.S. 97 (1934).Google Scholar
  86. Spaccarelli, S., & Kim, S. (1995) Resilience criteria and factors associated with resilience in sexually abused girls. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 1171–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sternberg, K. J., Lamb, M. E., Esplin, P. W., Orbach, Y., & Hershkowitz, I. (2002). Using a structured interview protocol to improve the quality of investigative interviews. In M. Eisen, J. Quas, & G. Goodman (Eds.), Memory and suggestibility in the forensic Interview (pp. 409–436). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  88. Sullivan, B., & Brill, L. W. (2008). Brief of the National Association of Counsel for Children and the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children as Amicus Curie in support of Respondent in Giles v. California.Google Scholar
  89. Swim, J.K., Borgida, E., & McCoy, K. (1993). Videotaped versus in-court testimony: Is protecting the child witness jeopardizing due process? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23, 603–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tedesco, J. F., & Schnell, S. V. (1987). Children’s Reactions to Sex Abuse Investigation and Litigation. Child Abuse and Neglect, 11, 267–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tyler, T. R. (1990). Why people obey the law. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  92. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2000). Child Abuse and Neglect State Statute Series, 4. Washington D.C.: National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information.Google Scholar
  93. Walsh, W. A., Cross, T. P., & Jones, L. M. (2007). Which sexual abuse victims receive a forensic medical examination? The impact of Children’s Advocacy Centers. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31, 1053–1068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Walsh, W. A., Lippert, T., Cross, T. P., Maurice, D. M., & Davison, K. (2008). How long to prosecute child sexual abuse for a community using a children’s advocacy center and two comparison communities? Child Maltreatment, 13, 3–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Warren-Leubecker, A., Tate, C. S., Hinton, I. D., & Ozbek, I. N. (1989). What do children know about the legal system and when do they know it? First steps down a less traveled path in child witness research. In S. J. Ceci, D. F. Ross, & M. P. Toglia (Eds.), Perspectives on children’s testimony (pp. 158–183). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  96. Weiss, E. H., & Berg, R. F. (1982). Child psychiatry and law: Child victims of sexual assault: Impact of court procedures. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 513–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wexler, D. B., & Winick, B. J. (1996). Law in a therapeutic key. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  98. Zeltzer, L.K., Fanurik, D., & LeBaron, S. (1989). The cold pressor pain paradigm in children: Feasibility of an intervention model, Part II. Pain, 37, 305–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jodi A. Quas
    • 1
  • Bradley D. McAuliff
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations