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Urinary biomarkers and nephrotoxicity

  • William F. Finn
  • George A. Porter

There are a number of definitions of the term “biomarker”. In general, they have in common three components: [1] that they are objectively measured indicators of specific anatomic, physiologic, biochemical, or molecular events; [2] that thay are associated with normal biological processes or accompany the onset, progression and/or severity of specific pathological or toxic conditions and [3] are that they are useful for measuring the progress of injury, disease or the effects of therapeutic intervention. For example, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) working group, a biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or a pharmacological response to a therapeutic intervention [1].

The types of biomarkers and the purposes served vary to some extent depending on the population beng observed. For public health purposes, the requirements of useful biomarkers to protect from injurious xenobiotic exposure are three-fold: firstly, to achieve the earliest identification of the potential for health impairment; secondly, to gain insight into the mechanism(s) responsible for any adverse impact on the health of individuals or specific populations at risk; and thirdly, to help assess the effects of interventions designed to minimize the short and longterm consequences of the initial injury. Important requirments for biomarker development are a detailed understanding of biochemical pathways involved in nephrotoxicity, minimal invasiveness and capacity to screen large atrisk populations.

Keywords

Glomerular Filtration Rate Proximal Tubule Lupus Nephritis Delay Graft Function Nephrol Dial Transplant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • William F. Finn
    • 1
  • George A. Porter
    1. 1.University of North Carolina UNC Kidney CenterChapel HillUSA

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