Star fruit

  • Miguel M. Neto
  • Ruither O. Carolino
  • Norberto P. Lopes
  • Norberto Garcia-Cairasco

The carambola or star fruit belongs to the Oxalidaceae family, species Averrhoa carambola. Slices cut in cross-section have the form of a star (Figure 1). It is believed to have originated in Ceylon and the Moluccas but it has been cultivated in southeast Asia and Malaysia for many centuries. It is commonly grown in some provinces in southern China, in Taiwan and India. It is rather popular in the Philippines and Queensland, Australia and moderately so in some of the South Pacific Islands, particularly Tahiti, New Caledonia and Netherlands New Guinea, and in Guam and Hawaii. There are some subspecies in the Caribbean Islands, in Central America and in tropical West Africa. It is also common in Brazil, where it is served as fresh beverage, in natura, or as an industrialized juice, as it is also served throughout the world. It was introduced into Southern Florida before 1887 and the fruits are also available in many European countries and Canada. It is widely used in restaurants for decorative purposes. In India, ripe fruit is administered to halt hemorrhages and to relieve bleeding hemorrhoids. In Brazil, star fruit is recommended as a diuretic for kidney and bladder complaints [1, 2].


Peritoneal Dialysis Oxalic Acid Status Epilepticus Uremic Patient Hemodialysis Session 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miguel M. Neto
    • 1
  • Ruither O. Carolino
    • 2
  • Norberto P. Lopes
    • 3
  • Norberto Garcia-Cairasco
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao PretoUniversity of Sao PauloRibeirao PretoBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and ImmunologyUniversity of Sao PauloRibeirao PretoBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Physics and ChemistryUniversity of Sao PauloRibeirao PretoBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Physiology Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao PretoUniversity of Sao PauloRibeirao PretoBrazil

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