Paraphenylene diamine hair dye poisoning

  • Mohamed I. Hamdouk
  • Mohamed B. Abdelraheem
  • Ahbab A. Taha
  • Mohamed Benghanem
  • Marc E. De Broe

Since 1883, paraphenylene diamine (PPD) has traditionally been used for dyeing (dark color) hair in Europe [1-2] as a fresh preparation mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) [3]. In Sudan PPD is used by women to color their hair and as a body dye when added to henna ( Lawasonia alba). Henna on it’s own need to be applied two or three times for several hours to give the desired color (dark red or black). In contrast this can be achieved with one single application in less than one hour by adding PPD to the henna. The toxicity of PPD, when added to henna occurs through skin absorption. This toxicity can not be attributed to henna, (L. Alba) which is a herb used for cosmetic purposes and also used in folk medicine for the treatment of some skin diseases, as an antiinflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic agent [4-5]. In Morocco, Takaout beldia indicates a non-toxic vegetable product extracted from the gallnut of Tamaris Orientalis (Figure 1). This non-toxic substance is highly appreciated by women for its hair dyeing properties. Its rarefaction resulted in the use of paraphenylene diamine as substitute under the name of Takaout Erroumia. If nowadays accidental ingestion is exceptional, its use for suicidal attempt in young women in Morocco and Tunisia is increasing [6].


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Acute Kidney Injury Contact Dermatitis Allergic Contact Dermatitis Crescentic Glomerulonephritis 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed I. Hamdouk
    • 1
  • Mohamed B. Abdelraheem
    • 2
  • Ahbab A. Taha
    • 1
  • Mohamed Benghanem
    • 3
  • Marc E. De Broe
    1. 1.Bahry Renal CentreKartoum NorthSudan
    2. 2.Pediatric Nephrology UnitUniversity of Khartoum, Soba University HospitalAmaratSudan
    3. 3.Service de Néphrologie Quartier Des HôpitauxCentre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn RochdCasablancaMorocco

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