Illicit drug abuse and renal disease

  • Cheryl L. Kunis
  • Nidhi Aggarwal
  • Gerald B. Appel

The illicit use of drugs involves millions of people worldwide and is associated with a variety of medical complications. In recent years the abuse of both heroin and cocaine have produced major medical problems across the globe. Other illicit agents such as barbiturates, ethyl alcohol, amphetamines, and phencyclidine, as well as drug combina tions produce medical complications as well, sometimes with renal manifestations (Table 1). An estimate of 5-6% of new patients beginning treatment for end stage renal disease in the United States appear to have opiate-related kidney disease [1].

This chapter will review the various renal manifestations of illicit drug abuse. It will focus on the clinical and pathologic presentation, the course, the treatment, and the pathogenesis of these lesions. Secondary renal infectious complica tions will not be discussed, except for the interrelationship of HIV and heroin nephropathy.


Acute Renal Failure Acute Kidney Injury Acute Tubular Necrosis Cocaine Abuse Acute Interstitial Nephritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Orth SR. Adverse renal effects of legal and illicit drugs. Ther Umsch 2002; 59(3):122-130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Crowe AV, Howse M, Bell GM, Henry JA. Substance abuse and the kidney. Quart J Med 2000; 93: 147-152.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cunningham EE, Brentjens JR, Zielezny MA, Andres GA, Venuto RC. Heroin nephropathy - a clinicopathologic and epidemiologic study. Am J Med 1980; 68: 47-53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Perneger TV, Klag MJ, Whelton PK. Recreational drug use: a neglected risk factor for end-stage renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 38 (1): 49-56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vupputuri S, Batuman V, Muntner P, Bazzano LA, Lefante JJ, Whelton PK, He J. The risk for mild kidney function decline associated with illicit drug use among hypertensive men. Am J Kidney Dis 2004; 43:629-635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Avram MM, Iancu M, Weiss S. Heroin usage nephropathy - subclinical to end stage nephrotic syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol 1971; 5A.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eknoyan G, Gyorkey F, Dichoso C, Hyde SE, Gyorkey P, Suki WN, Matinez-Maldonado M. Renal involvement in drug abuse. Arch Intern Med 1973; 132: 801-806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Friedman EA, Rao TKS, Nicastri AD. Heroin-associated nephropathy. Nephron 1974; 13: 421-426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kilcoyne MM, Gocke DJ, Meltzer JI, Daly JJ, Thomason GE, Hsu KC, Tannen baum M. Nephrotic syndrome in heroin addicts. Lancet 1972; 1: 17-20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Matalon R, Katz L, Gallo G. Glomerular sclerosis in adults with nephrotic syndrome. Ann Int Med 1974; 80: 488-495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    McGinn JT, McGinn TG, Cherubin CE, Hoffman RS. Nephrotic syndrome in drug addicts. NY State J Med 1974; 74: 92-95.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rao TKS, Nicastri AD, Friedman EA. A natural history of heroin associated nephropathy. N Engl J Med 1974; 290: 19-23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sapira JD, Ball JC, Penn H. Causes of death among institutional narcotic addicts. J Chronic Dis 1970; 22: 733-742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Salomon MI, Poon TP, Goldblatt M, Tchertkoff V. Renal lesions in heroin addicts: a study based on kidney biopsies. Nephron 1972; 9: 356-363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Arruda JAL, Kurtzman NA, Pillay VKG. Prevalence of renal disease in asymptomatic heroin addicts. Arch Intern Med 1975; 135: 535-537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Llach F, Descoeudres C, Massry SG. Heroin associated nephropathy: clinical and histological studies in 19 patients. Clin Nephrol 1979; 11: 7-12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thompson AM, Anthonovych T, Lin R. Focal membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in heroin users. J Am Soc Nephrol 1973; 105A.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Treser G, Cherubin C, Lonergan ET, Yoshizawa N, Viswanathan V, Tannenberg AM, Pompa D, Lange K. Renal lesions in narcotic addicts. Am J Med 1974; 57: 687-694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gallo G, Neugarten J, Buxbaum J, Katz L. Renal amyloidosis in subcutaneous heroin abusers. ASN (New Orleans) 1985; 38A.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dettmeyer R, Wessling B, Madea B. Heroin-associated nephropathy - a post-mortem study. Forensic Sci Int 1998; 95: 109-116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Steinmuller DR, Bolton WK, Stillman MM, Couser WG. Chronic interstitial nephritis and mixed cryoglobulin associated with drug abuse. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1979; 103: 63-66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    McAllister CJ, Horn R, Havron A, Abramson JH. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis: a complication of heroin abuse. S Med J 1979; 72: 162-165.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hill P, Dwyer K, Kay T, Murphy B. Severe chronic renal failure in association with oxycodone addiction: a new form of fibrillary glomerulopathy. Hum Pathol 2002; 33(8): 783-787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Peces R, Diaz-Corte C, Baltar J, Seco M, Alvarez-Grande J. Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome in a heroin addict. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998; 13: 3197-3199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stehman-Breen C, Alpers CE, Fleet WP, Johnson RJ. Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis among patients infected with hepatitis C virus. Nephron 1999; 81: 37-40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Do Sameiro Faria M, Sampaio S, Faria V, Carvalho E. Nephropathy associated with heroin abuse in Caucasian patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003;18:2308-2313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Glicklich D, Haskell L, Senitzer D, Weiss RA. Possible genetic predisposition to idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Am J Kidney Dis 1988; 12: 26-30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Haskell LP, Glicklich D, Senitzer D. HLA associations in heroin-associated nephropathy. Am J Kidney Dis 1988; 12: 45-50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kaplan JM, Kim SH, North KN, Rennke H, Correia LA, Tong HQ, Mathis BJ, Rodriguez-Perez JC, Allen PG, Beggs AH, Pollak MR. Mutations in ACTN4, encoding alpha-actin-4, cause familial focal segmental glomeruloscerosis. Nat Genet 2000; 24:251-256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Boute N, Gribouval O, Roselli S, Benessy F;, Attie T, Gubler MC, Niaudet P, Antignac C. NPHS2, encoding the glomerular podocin, is mutated in autosomal recessive steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Nat Genet 2000; 24: 349-354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Niranjan T, Bielesz B, Gruenwald A, Ponda MP, Kopp JB, Thomas DB, Susztak K. The Notch pathway in podocytes plays a role in the development of glomerular disease. Nat Med. 2008; 14 (3):290-298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mukerji N, Damodaran TV, Winn MP. TRPC6 and FSGS: the latest TRP channelopathy. Biochim Biophys Acta 2007;1772 (8):859-868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jaffe JA, Kimmel PL. Chronic nephropathies of cocaine and heroin abuse: a critical review. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;1:655-667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Moody C, Kaufman R, McGuire D, Grossman S. The role of adulterants in heroin nephropathy. NKF (New Orleans) 1985; 32.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Brown SM, Stimmel B, Taub RN, Kochwa S, Rosenfield RE. Immunologic dysfunction in heroin addicts. Arch Intern Med 1974; 134: 1001-1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nikolova M., Liubomirova M, Iliev A, Krasteva R, Andreev E, Radenkova J, Minkova V, Djerassi R, Kiperova B, Vlahov ID. Clinical significance of antinuclear antibodies, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and anticardiolipin antibodies in heroin abusers. Isr Med Assoc J 2002 ;4 (11 Suppl):908-910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ringle DA, Herndon BL. In-vitro morphine binding by sera from morphine-treated rabbits. J Immunol 1972; 109: 174-175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ryan JJ, Parker CW, Williams RC. Gamma-globulin binding of morphine in heroin addicts. J Lab Clin Med 1972; 80: 155-164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Weksler ME, Cherubin C, Kilcoyne M, Koppel G, Yoel M. Absence of mor phine-binding activity in serum from heroin addicts. Clin Exp Immunol 1973; 13: 613-617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Shah SP, Khine M, Anigbogu J, Miller A. Nodular amyloidosis of the lung from intravenous drug abuse: an uncommon cause of multiple pulmonary nodules. South Med J 1998 ;91 (4):402-404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Marchand C, Cantin M, Cote M. Evidence for the nephrotoxicity of morphine sulfate in rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1969; 47: 649-655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Johnson JE, White JJ, Walovitch RC, London ED. Effects of morphine on rat kidney glomerular podocytes. A scanning electron microscope study. Drug Alcohol Depend 1987; 19: 249-257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Singhal PC, Gibbons N, Abromovici M. Long term effects of morphine on mesangial cell proliferation and matrix synthesis. Kidney Int 1992; 41: 1560-1570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Singhal PC, Pan CQ, Sagar S, Valderrama E, Stahl RA. Morphine modulates mesangial immunoglobulin G uptake in rats with antithymocyte serum-induced mesangial cell injury. Nephron 1996; 74: 197-203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kapasi AA, Gibbons N, Mattana J, Singhal PC. Morphine stimulates mesangial cell TNF-a and nitrite production. Inflammation 2000; 24: 463-476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Singhal PC, Sharma P, Gibbons N, Franki N, Kapasi A, Wagner JD. Effect of morphine on renomedullary interstitial cell proliferation and matrix accumulation. Nephron 1997; 77: 225-234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Singhal PC, Sharma P, Sanwal V, Prasad A, Kapasi A, Ranjan R, Franki N, Reddy K, Gibbons N. Morphine modulates proliferation of kidney fibroblasts. Kidney Int 1998; 53: 350-357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Arerangaiah R, Chalasani N, Udager AM, Weber ML, Manivel JC, Griffin RJ, Song CW, Gupta K. Opioids induce renal abnormalities in tumor-bearing mice. Nephron Exp Nephrol 2007; 105(3): e80-89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dubrow A, Mittman N, Ghali V, Ghali V, Flamenbaum W. The changing spectrum of heroin-associ ated nephropathy. Am J Kidney Dis 1985; 5: 36-41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kunis C, Olesnicky M, Nurse H. Heroin nephropathy-clinical pathologic correlations. Proc 9th Int Congr Nephrol 1984; 102A.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cunningham EE, Zielezny MA, Venuto RC. Heroin-associated nephropathy - a nationwide problem. JAMA 1983; 250: 2935-2936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Davis JS, Lie JT. Extracellular glomerular microparticles in nephrotic syndrome of heroin users. Arch Pathol 1975; 99: 278-282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gardiner H, Mahajan S, Briggs W. Renal disease in heroin addicts. J Am Soc Nephrol 1977; 15A.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Grishman E, Churg J. Focal glomerular sclerosis in nephrotic patients. An electron microscope study of glomerular podocytes. Kidney Int 1975; 7: 111-122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Grishman E, Churg J, Porush JG. Glomerular morphology in nephrotic heroin addicts. Lab Invest 1976; 35: 415-424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rao TKS, Nicastri AD, Friedman EA. Renal consequences of narcotic abuse. Adv Nephrol 1979; 7: 261-290.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Baldwin DS, Gallo GR, Neugarten J. Drug abuse with narcotics and other agents in diseases of the kidney. In: Diseases of the kidney, 5th ed. Schrier RW, Gottschalk CW (editors). Little Brown and Co, Boston 1992; p 1219-1236.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    D’Agati V, Appel GB. HIV infection and the kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol 1997; 8: 138-152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rao TK, Filippone EJ, Nicastri AD, Landesman SH, Frank E, Chen CK, Friedman EA. Associated focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1984; 310: 669-673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ross G, Weinstein S, Dutton S, Whittier FC. Renal transplantation in end stage renal disease of drug abuse. J Urol 1983; 129: 14-15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gordon MJ, White R, Matas A, Tellis VA, Glicklich D, Quinn T, Soberman R, Veith FJ. Renal transplantation in patients with history of heroin abuse. Trans planta tion 1986; 42: 556-557.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Brus I, Steiner G, Maceda A, Lejano R. Amyloid fibrils in urinary sediment. Heroin addiction with renal amyloidosis. NY State J Med 1979; 79: 768-771.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jacob H, Charytan C, Rascoff JH, Golden R, Janis R. Amyloidosis secondary to drug abuse and chronic skin suppuration. Arch Intern Med 1978; 138: 1150-1151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Meador KH, Sharon Z, Lewis EJ. Renal amyloidosis and subcutaneous drug abuse. Ann Intern Med 1979; 91: 565-567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Novick DM, Yancovitz SR, Weinberg PG. Amyloidosis in parenteral drug abusers. Mt Sinai J Med 1979; 46: 163-167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Scholes JV, Derosena R, Appel GB. Amyloidosis and the nephrotic syndrome in chronic heroin addicts. Proc 7th Int Congr Nephrol 1978; L9.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Scholes J, Derosena R, Appel GB, Ao W, Boyd MT, Pirani CL. Amyloidosis in chronic heroin addicts with the nephrotic syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1979; 91: 26-29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Menchel S, Cohen D, Gross E, Frangione B, Gallo G. AA protein-related renal amyloidosis in drug addicts. Am J Pathol 1983; 112: 195-199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Amigo JS, Orriols J, Modol J. Resolution of nephrotic syndrome secondary to heroin-associated renal amyloidosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1990; 158.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Crowley S, Feinfeld DA, Janis R. Resolution of nephrotic syndrome and lack of progression of heroin associated renal amyloidosis. Am J Kidney Dis 1989; 13: 333-335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Derosena R, Koss MN, Pirani CL. Demonstration of amyloid fibrils in urinary sediment. N Engl J Med 1975; 293: 1131-1133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chan-Tack KM, Ahuja N, Weiman EJ Wali RK, Uche A, Greisman LA, Drachenberg C, Hawkins PN, Redfield RR. Acute renal failure and nephrotic range proteinuria due to amyloidodsis in an HIV-infected patient. Am J Med Sci 2006; 332 (6):364-367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Connolly JO, Gillmore JD, Lachmann HJ, Davenport A, Hawkins PN, Woolfson RG. Renal amyloidosis in intravenous drug abusers. QJMed 2006; 99:737-742.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Neugarten J, Gallo GR, Buxbaum J, Katz LA, Rubenstein J, Baldwin DS. Amyloidosis in subcutaneous heroin abusers. Am J Med 1986; 81: 635-640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tan AU Jr, Cohen AH, Levine BS. Renal amyloidosis in a drug abuser. J Am Soc Nephrol 1995; 5: 1653-1658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ray PE, Xu L, Rakusan T, Liu XH. A 20-year history of childhood HIV-associated nephropathy. Pediatr Nephrol. 2004;19(10):1075-1092PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    D’Agati V, Cheng JI, Carbone L, Cheng JT, Appel G. The pathology of HIV-nephropathy: a detailed morphologic and comparative study. Kidney Int 1989; 35: 1358-1370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    D’Agati V, Appel GB. Renal pathology of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sem Nephrol 1998; 18: 406-421.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Appel GB, Nicolaides M. HIV-AIDS nephropathy in the inner city. New York State J Med 1991; 91: 207-210.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rao TK, Friedman EA, Nicastri AD. The types of renal disease in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1987; 316: 1062-1068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Carbone L, D’Agati V, Cheng J-T, Appel GB. Course and prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy. Am J Med 1989; 87: 389-395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Pardo V, Aldana M, Colton RM, Fischl MA, Jaffe D, Moskowitz L, Hensley GT, Bourgoignie JJ. Glomerular lesions in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1984; 101: 429-434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Strauss J, Abibol C, Zilleruelo G, Scott G, Paredes A, Malaga S, Montane B, Mitchell C. Renal disease in children with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 625-630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bourgoigne JJ. Renal complications of human immuodeficiency virus type I. Kidney Int 1990; 37: 1571-1584.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Seney FD, Burns DK, Silva FG. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the kidney. Am J Kidney Dis 1990; 16: 1-13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Glassock RJ, Cohen AH, Danovitch G, Parsa P. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the kidney. Ann Int Med 1990; 112: 35-49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pardo V, Meneses R, Ossa L, Jaffe DJ, Strauss J, Roth D, Bourgoignie JJ. AIDS-related glomerulopathy: occurrence in specific risk groups. Kidney Int 1987; 31: 1167-1173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Winston JA, Burns GC, Klotman PE. The human immunodeficiency virus epidemic and HIV associated nephropathy. Sem Nephol 1998; 18: 373-377.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Friedman EA, Tao TK. Disappearance of uremia due to heroin-associated nephropathy. Am J Kidney Dis 1995: 5: 689-693.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gharavi AG, Ahmad T, Wong RD, et al. Mapping a locus for susceptibility to HIV-1-associated nephropathy to mouse chromosome 3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(8):2488-2493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lucas GM, Lau B, Atta MG, Fine DM, Keruly J, Moore RD. Chronic Kidney Disease Incidence, and Progression to End-Stage Renal Disease, in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Tale of Two Races. J Infect Dis. Apr 18 2008.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cohen AH, Sun NCJ, Shapshak P, Imagawa DT. Demonstration of HIV in renal epithelium in HIV associated nephropathy. Modern Path 1989; 2: 125-128.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Winston JA, Bruggeman LA, Ross MD, Jacobson J, Ross L, D’Agati V, Klotman PE, Klotman ME. Nephropathy and establishment of a renal reservoir of HIV type 1 during primary infection. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 1979-1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wali RK, Drachenberg CI, Papadimitriou JC, Keay S, Ramos E. HIV-1-associated nephropathy and respose to highly-active antiretroviral therapy. Lancet 1998; 352: 783-784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ho DD, Zhang L. HIV-1 rebound after abti-retroviral therapy. Nat Med 2000; 6: 736-737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Monahan M, Tanji N, Klotman PE. HIV-associated nephropathy: An urban epidemic. Semin Nephrol 2001; 21: 394-402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Post FA, Campbell LJ, Hamzah L, Collins L, Jones R, Siwani R Johnson L, Fisher M, Holt SG, Bhaagani S, Frankel AH, et al. Predictors of renal outcome in HIV-associated nephropathy. CID 2008; 46:1282-1289.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kimmel PL, Ferreira-Centeno A, Farkas-Szallasi T, Abraham AA, Garrett CT. Viral DNA in micro dissected renal biopsy material from HIV infected patients with the nephrotic syn drome. Kidney Int 1993; 43: 1347-1352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Green DF, Resnick L, Bourgoignie J. HIV infects glomerular endothelial and mesangial cells but not epithelial cells in vitro. Kidney Int 1992; 41: 956-960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bruggeman LA, Ross MD, Tanji N, et al. Renal epithelium is a previously unrecognized site of HIV-1 infection. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000;11(11):2079-2087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kopp JB, Klotman ME, Adler SH, Bruggeman LA, Dickie P, Marinos NJ, Eckhaus M, Bryant JL, Notkins AL, Klotman PE. Progressive glomerulosclerosis and enhanced renal accumulation of basement membrane components in mice transge nic for HIV type 1 genes. Proc Nat Acad Sci 1992; 89: 1577-1581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Husain M, D’Agati VD, He JC, Klotman ME, Klotman PE. HIV-1 Nef induces dedifferentiation of podocytes in vivo: a characteristic feature of HIVAN. AIDS. 2005;19(17):1975-1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Singhal PC, Sagar S, Reddy K, Sharma P, Ranjan R, Franki N. HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein and morphine-tubular cell interaction products modulate kidney fibroblast proliferation. J Invest Med 1998; 46: 243-248.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Eremina V, Sood M, Haigh J, Nagy A, Lajoie G, Ferrara N, Gerber HP, Kikkawa Y, Miner JH, Quaggin SE. Glomerular-specific alterations of VEGF-A expression lead to distinct congenital and acquired renal diseases. J Clin Invest 2003; 111 (5):707-716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Korgaonkar SN, Feng X, Ross MD, et al. HIV-1 upregulates VEGF in podocytes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19(5):877-883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kimmel PL, Cohen DJ, Abraham AA, Bodi I, Schwartz AM, Philips TM. Upregulation of MHC class II, interferon-a and interferon-g receptor protein expression in HIV-associated nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18 (2):285-292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Koffler A, Friedler RM, Massry SG. Acute renal failure due to nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Ann Intern Med 1976; 85: 23-28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Penn AS, Rowland LP, Fraser DW. Drugs, coma, and myoglobinuria. Arch Neurology 1972; 26: 336-344.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Grossman RA, Hamilton RW, Morse BM, Penn AS, Goldberg M. Nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. N Engl J Med 1974; 291: 807-811.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ward MM. Factors predictive of acute renal failure in rhabdomyolysis. Arch Intern Med 1988; 148: 1553-1557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Eneas JF, Schoenfeld PY, Humphreys MH. The effect of infusion of mannitol-sodium bicarbonate on the clinical course of myoglobinuria. Arch Intern Med 1979; 139: 801-805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Robinson SF, Woods AH. Heroin induced rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure: a case report. Arizona Med 1974; 31: 246- 251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Richter RW, Challenor YB, Pearson J, Kagen LJ, Hamilton LL, Ramsey WH. Acute myoglobinuria associated with heroin addiction. JAMA 1971; 216: 1172-1176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Rao TK, Nicastri AD, Friedman EA. Natural history of heroin associated nephropathy. In: Nephrology. Hamburger J, Crosnier J, Maxwell MH (editors). Wiley, New York 1979; p 843-856.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Rice EK, Isbel NM, Becker GJ, Atkins RC, McMahon LP. Heroin overdose and myoglobinuric acute renal failure. Clin Nephol 2000; 54:449-454.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Corwin HL, Schreiber MJ, Fang LS. Low fractional excretion of sodium. Occurrence with hemoglobinuric and myoglobinuric- induced acute renal failure. Arch Intern Med 1984; 144: 981-982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Llach F, Felsenfeld AJ, Haussler MR. The pathophysiology of altered calcium metabolism in rhabdomyolysis-induced acute renal failure. N Engl J Med 1981; 305: 117-123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Gabow PA, Kaehny WD, Kelleher SP. The spectrum of rhabdomyolysis. Medicine 1982; 61: 141-152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Penn AS. Myoglobin and myoglobinuria. In: The handbook of clinical neurology - disease of muscle. Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (editors). North-Holland Publishing Co, Amsterdam, New York, Oxford 1979; 41: 259-285.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Rowland LP, Penn AS. Myoglobinuria. Med Clin N Am 1972; 56: 1233-1256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Zager RA. Studies of mechanisms and protective maneuvers in myoglobinuric acute renal failure. Lab Invest 1989; 60: 619- 629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Better OS. Early management of shock and prophylaxis of acute renal failure in traumatic rhabdomyolysis. N Engl J Med 1990; 322: 825-828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Venuto RC. Pigment-associated acute renal failure: is the water clearer 50 years later ? J Lab Clin Med 1992; 119: 452-454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Odeh M. The role of reperfusion-induced injury in the pathogenesis of the crush syndrome. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1417- 1422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Nath KA, Balla G, Vercellotti GM, Balla J, Jacob HS, Levitt, Rosenberg ME. Induction of heme oxidase is a rapid protec tive response in rhabdomyolysis in the rat. J Clin Invest 1992; 90: 267-270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Zager RA. Combined mannitol and desferoxamine therapy for myohemoglobinur ic renal injury and oxidant tubular stress. Mechanistic and therapeutic implica tions. J Clin Invest 1992; 90: 711-719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Ron D, Taitelman U, Michaelson M, Bar-Joseph G, Bursztein S, Better OS. Prevention of acute renal failure in traumatic rhabdomyolysis. Arch Intern Med 1984; 144: 277-280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Rubin RB, Neugarten J. Medical complications of cocaine: changes in pattern of use and spectrum of complications. Clin Toxicology 1992; 30: 1-12.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Adverse effects of cocaine abuse. Med Letter 1984; 26: 51-52.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Cregler LI, Mark H. Medical complications of cocaine abuse. N Engl J Med 1986; 315: 1495-1500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Isner JM, Estes NA, Thompson PD, Costanzo-Nordin MR, Subramanian R, Miller G, Katsas G, Sweeney K, Sturner WQ. Acute cardiac events temporally related to cocaine abuse. N Engl J Med 1986; 315: 1438-1443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Zamoa-Quezada JC, Dinerman H, Stadecker MJ, Kelly JJ. Muscle and skin infarction after free-basing cocaine (Crack). Ann Intern Med 1988; 108: 564-566.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Krohn KD, Slowman-Kovacs S, Leapman SB. Cocaine and rhabdomyolysis. Ann Intern Med 1988; 108: 639-640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Rubin RB, Neugarten J. Cocaine-induced rhabdomyolysis masquerading as myocardial ischemia. Am J Med 1989; 86: 551-553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Lombard J, Wong B, Young JH. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis associated with cocaine toxicity. West J Med 1988; 148: 466-468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Herzlich BC, Arsura EL, Pagala M, Grob D. Rhabdomyolysis related to cocaine abuse. Ann Intern Med 1988; 109: 335-336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Pogue VA, Nurse HM. Cocaine-associated acute myoglobinuric renal failure. Am J Med 1989; 86: 183-186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Merigian KS, Roberts JR. Cocaine intoxication: hyperpyrexia, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Clin Toxicol 1987; 25: 135-148.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Faulkner M, Singhal P, Peters A. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure following cocaine abuse. Kidney Int 1989; 35: 225A.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Roth D, Alarcon FJ, Fernandez JA, Preston RA, Bourgoignie JJ. Acute rhabdo myolysis associated with cocaine intoxication. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 673-677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Singhal PC, Rubin RB, Peters A, Santiago A, Neugarten J. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure associated with cocaine abuse. Clin Toxicology 1990; 28: 321-330.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Barrido DT, Joseph AJ, Rao TK, Friedman EA. Renal disease associated with acute and chronic “Crack” abuse. Kidney Int 1988; 33: 181A.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Attoussi S, Faulkner ML, Oso A, Umoru B. Cocaine-induced scleroderma and scleroderma renal crisis. South Med J 1998; 91: 961-963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Gu X, Herrera GA. Thrombotic microangiopathy in cocaine abuse-associated malignant hypertension: report of 2 cases with review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131(12):1817-1820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Sharff JA. Renal infarction associated with intravenous cocaine use. Ann Emerg Med 1984; 13: 1145-1147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Goodman PE, Rennie WP. Renal infarction secondary to nasal insufflation of cocaine. Am. J Emerg Med 1995; 13: 421-423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Zoghby Z, Sekhon IS, Miller DV, Sethi S. Cocaine, loin pain, and renal vein thrombosis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;49(6):859-861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Alvarez D, Nzerue CM, Daniel JF, Faruque S, Hewan-Lowe K. Acute interstitial nephritis induced by crack cocaine binge. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999; 14: 1260-1262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Peces R, Navascues RA, Baltar J, Seco M, Alvarez J. Antiglomerular basement membrane antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis after intranasal cocaine use. Nephron 1999; 81: 434-438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Garcia-Rostan GM, Garcia-Bragado F, Puras-Gil AM. Pulmonary hemorrhage and antiglomerular membrane antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis after exposure to smoked (crack) cocaine: A case report and review of the literature. Pathol Int 1997: 47: 692-697.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Chevalier X, Rostoker G, Larget-Piet B, Gherardi R. Schoenlein-Henoch pupura with necrotizing vasculitis after cocaine snorting. Clin Nephrol 1995; 43: 348-349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Volcy J, Nzerue CM, Oderinde A, Hewan-Lowe K. Cocaine-induced acute renal failure, hemolysis, and thrombocytopenia mimick- ing thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Am J Kidney Dis 2000; 35: E3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Tumlin JA, Sands JM, Someren A. Hemolytic uremic syndrome following “crack” cocaine inhalation. Am J Med Sci 1990; 299: 366-371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Gottbrath-Flaherty EK, Agrawal R, Thaker V, Patel D, Ghai K. Urinary tract infections in cocaine-exposed infants. J Perinatol 1995; 15: 203-207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Klotman PE. HIV-associated nephropathy. Kidney Int 1999; 56: 1161-1176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Ward HJ, San Diego R, Pan DK. Substance abuse as a risk factor for hypertensive renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 1998; 162 A (abstract).Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Norris K, Thornhill-Joynes M, Robinson C, Strickland T, Alperson B, Witana S, Ward HJ. Cocaine use, hypertension and end stage renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 38: 523-528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Dunea G, Arruda JL, Bakin-Share DS, Smith C. Role of cocaine in end-stage renal disease in some hypertensive African-Americans. Am J Nephrol 1995; 15: 5-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Ward HJ, Pickett R, Tovar L. Cocaine associated nephropathy: a new clinicopathologic entity. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11; 79A (abstract).Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Fine DM, Garg N, Haas M, Hafizur Rahman M, Lucas GM, Scheel PJ, Atta MG. Cocaine use and hypertensive renal changes in HIV- infected individuals. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2(6):1125-1130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Cogen FC, Rigg G, Simmons JL, Domino EF. Phencyclidine-associated acute rhabdomyolysis. Ann Intern Med 1978; 88: 210- 212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Akmal M, Valdin JR, McCarron MM, Massry SG. Rhabdomyolysis with and without acute renal failure in patients with phencyclidine intoxication. Am J Nephrol 1981; 1: 91-96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hoogwerf B, Kern J, Bullock M, Comty CM. Phencyclidine-induced rhabdomyol ysis and acute renal failure. Clin Toxicol 1979; 14: 47-53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Patel R, Ansari A, Hughes JL. Myoglobinuric acute renal failure associated with phencyclidine abuse. West J Med 1979; 131: 244-247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Patel R, Das M, Patazzolo M, Ansari A, Balasubramaniam J. Myoglobinuric acute renal failure in phency clidine overdose. Report of observations in eight cases. Ann Emerg Med 1980; 9: 549-553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Barton CH, Sterling ML, Vaziri ND. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure associated with phencyclidine intoxication. Arch Intern Med 1980; 140: 568-569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Kuncl RW, Meltzer HY. Pathologic effect of phencyclidine and restraint on rat skeletal muscle: prevention by prior denervation. Exp Neurology 1974; 45: 3887-3402.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Appel GB, Radhakrishnan J, D’Agati V, Secondary glomerular disease. In: The Kidney (chapter 30), 6th edition. BH Brenner (editor). WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia 2000; p 1350-1449.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Citron BP, Halpern M, McCarron M, Lundberg GD, McCormick R, Pincus IJ, Tatter D, Haverback BJ. Necrotizing angiitis associated with drug abuse. N Engl J Med 1970; 283: 1003-1011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Baden MM. Angiitis in drug abuse. N Engl J Med 1971; 284: 111-112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Citron BP, Peters RL. Angiitis in drug abuse. N Engl J Med 1971; 284: 112.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Gocke DJ, Hsu K, Morgan C, Bombardieri S, Lockshin M, Christian CL. Association between polyarteritis and Australia antigen. Lancet 1970; 2: 1149-1153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Koff RS, Widrich WC, Robbins AH. Necrotizing angiitis in a methamphetamine user with hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 1973; 288: 946-947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Lignelli GJ, Buchheit WA. Angiitis in drug abuse. N Engl J Med 1971; 284: 112-123.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Cacoub P, Lunel-Fabiani F, Huong Dup LT. Polyarteritis nodosa and hepatitis C virus infection. Ann Intern Med 1992; 116: 605-606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hurault de Ligny B, El Haggan W, Comoz F, et al. Early loss of two renal grafts obtained from the same donor: role of ecstasy? Transplantation. 2005;80(1):153-156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Ginsberg MD, Hetrzman M, Schmidt-Nowara WW. Amphetamine intoxication with coagulopathy, hyperthermia, and reversible renal failure. Ann Intern Med 1970; 73: 81-85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Kendrick WC, Hull AR, Knochel JP. Rhabdomyolysis and shock after intra venous amphetamine administration. Ann Intern Med 1977; 86: 381-387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Foley RJ, Kapatkin K, Verani R, Weinman E. Amphetamine-induced acute renal failure. Southern Med J 1984; 77: 258-260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Verebey K, Alraze J, Depace A. The complications of “Ecstacy” (MDMA). JAMA 1988; 259: 1649-1658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Hartung TK, Schofield E, Short AI, Parr MJ, Henry JA. Hyponatraemic states following 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’) ingestion. Quart J Med. 2002;95(7):431-437.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Brvar M, Kozelj G, Osredkar J, Mozina M, Gricar M, Bunc M. Polydipsia as another mechanism of hyponatremia after ‘ecstasy’ (3,4 methyldioxymethamphetamine) ingestion. Eur J Emerg Med. 2004;11(5):302-304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Bohatyrewicz M, Urasinska E, Rozanski J, Ciecharowski K. Membranous glomerulonephritis may be associated with heavy mari- juana abuse. Transplant Proc. 2007; 39(10):3054-3056.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Busse F, Omidi L, Leichtle A, Windgassen M, Kluge E, Stumvoll M. Lead Poisoning due to adulterated marijuana. N Engl J Med 2008;358 (15):1641-1642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    De Marchi S, Cecchin E, Basile A. Renal tubular dysfunction in chronic alcohol abuse - effects of abstinence. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 1927-1934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Sadjadi SA, McLaughlin K, Shah RM. Allergic interstitial nephritis due to Diazepam. Arch Intern Med 1987; 141: 579-580.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheryl L. Kunis
    • 1
  • Nidhi Aggarwal
    • 1
  • Gerald B. Appel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of NephrologyColumbia University College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations