Sulfonamides, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pentamidine, pyrimethamine, dapsone, quinolones

  • Gabriel N. Contreras
  • Cristiane Mocelin Carvalho
  • Jorge M. Diego
  • Decio Carvalho
  • Isabel Espinal

Anumber of drugs of miscellaneous class are capable of producing various degrees of renal damage and will be reviewed in this Chapter. Some have been used extensively in the past for the treatment of general infections (sulfonamides), others have had specific indications (pentamidine, dapsone), and others such as quinolones are of more recent application. Many of these, however, are of current interest because of their use in treating the complications occurring in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).


Acute Renal Failure Acute Kidney Injury Visceral Leishmaniasis Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Interstitial Nephritis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Dowling HF LM. Toxic reactions following therapy with sulfapyridine, sulfa-thiazole and sulfadiazine. JAMA. 1943;121:1190–4.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vilter CF BM. Toxic reactions of the newer sulfonamides. JAMA. 1944;126:691–5.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lehr D. Clinical toxicity of sulfonamides. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1957 Oct 12;69(3):417–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weinstein L, Madoff MA, Samet CM. The sulfonamides. The New England journal of medicine. 1960 Nov 3;263:900–7 contd.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dorfman LE, Smith J P. Sulfonamide crystalluria: a forgotten disease. The Journal of urology. 1970 Sep;104(3):482–3.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Appel GB, Kunis C.L.. Acute interstitial nephriitis. In: Cotran RS BB, Stein JH, ed. Tubulointerstitial nephropathies. New York: Churchill 1983:151–85.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Simon DI, Brosius FC, 3rd, Rothstein DM. Sulfadiazine crystalluria revisited. The treatment of Toxoplasma encephalitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Archives of internal medicine. 1990 Nov;150(11):2379–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nissen NI, Aagaard K, Flindt-Hansen E. Sulfonamide hematuria; frequency of injury to the urinary tract as estimated on the basis of 6,084 cases treated with different sulfonamide preparations. Acta medica Scandinavica. 1950;138(4):301–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dwarakanath AD, Michael J, Allan RN. Sulphasalazine induced renal failure. Gut. 1992 Jul;33(7):1006–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Finland M SE, Peterson O.L. Sulfadiazine: therapeutic evaluation and toxic effects in four hundred and forty-six patients. Jama. 1941;16:2641–7.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fox CLJ, Jensen OJ Jr, Mudge G.H. The prevention of renal obstruction during sulfadiazine therapy. Jama. 1943;121:1147–50.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yap HK, Yip WC, Tay JS, Tan SH, Lee BW. Reversible ultrasound findings in the kidneys of a patient with sulphonamide induced obstructive uropathy. The Journal of the Singapore Paediatric Society. 1984;26(1–2):105–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goadsby PJ, Donaghy AJ, Lloyd AR, Wakefield D. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sulfadiazine-associated acute renal failure. Annals of internal medicine. 1987 Nov;107(5):783–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sahai J, Heimberger T, Collins K, Kaplowitz L, Polk R. Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a reminder. The American journal of medicine. 1988 Apr;84(4):791–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ventura MG, Wybran J, Farber CM. Sulfadiazine revisited. The Journal of infectious diseases. 1989 Sep;160(3):556–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Carbone LG, Bendixen B, Appel GB. Sulfadiazine-associated obstructive nephropathy occurring in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Kidney Dis. 1988 Jul;12(1):72–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Christin S, Baumelou A, Bahri S, Ben Hmida M, Deray G, Jacobs C. Acute renal failure due to sulfadiazine in patients with AIDS. Nephron. 1990;55(2):233–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Antopol W RH. Urolithiasis and renal pathology after oral administration of 2-sulfanilylamino (sulfapyridine).. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1939;40:428–30.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Molina JM, Belenfant X, Doco-Lecompte T, Idatte JM, Modai J. Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in AIDS patients with toxoplasma encephalitis. AIDS (London, England). 1991 May;5(5):587–9.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Filks I.N FCR, Barbas Filho J.V, Kairalla R.A, Oliveira-Vianna E dos S, Stavale ML, de Carvalho C.R. Kidney Failure as a Complication of the treatment of pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo. 1992;47:103–5.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Marques L P, Silva MT, Madeira E P, Santos OR. Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient. Ne-phron. 1992;62(3):361.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    De Jaureguiberry JP RP, Vey N, Jaubert D. Acute renal failure caused by sulfadiazine crystalluria in AIDS. An historical resurgent iatrogenic complication. Ann Med Interne. 1992;143:218–9.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Corbella X MJ, Santin M, Carratala J. Insuficiencia renal aguda por sulfadiazina en el tratamiento de una toxoplasmosis cerebral. Rev Clin Esp. 1992;190:330–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Farinas MC, Echevarria S, Sampedro I, Gonzalez A, Perez del Molino A, Gonzalez-Macias J. Renal failure due to sulphadiazine in AIDS patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis. Journal of internal medicine. 1993 Apr;233(4):365–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hein R, Brunkhorst R, Thon WF, Schedel I, Schmidt RE. Symptomatic sulfadiazine crystalluria in AIDS patients: a report of two cases. Clinical nephrology. 1993 May;39(5):254–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Haverkos HW. Assessment of therapy for toxoplasma encephalitis. The TE Study Group. The American journal of medicine. 1987 May;82(5):907–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Becker K, Jablonowski H, Haussinger D. Sulfadiazine-associated nephrotoxicity in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Medicine. 1996 Jul;75(4):185–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kane D, Murphy JM, Keating S, Wilson GF, Mulcahy FM. Renal ultrasonic findings in sulphadiazine-induced renal failure. The British journal of radiology. 1996 Oct;69(826):925–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Colebunders R, Depraetere K, De Droogh E, Kamper A, Corthout B, Bottiau E. Obstructive nephropathy due to sulfa crystals in two HIV seropositive patients treated with sulfadiazine. Jbr-Btr. 1999 Aug;82(4):153–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goodman LS GA. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8th Ed ed. New York: McGraw Hill 1991:1047.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Diaz F, Collazos J, Mayo J, Martinez E. Sulfadiazine-induced multiple urolithiasis and acute renal failure in a patient with AIDS and Toxoplasma encephalitis. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. 1996 Jan;30(1):41–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    de Sequera P, Albalate M, Hernandez J, Vazquez A, Abad J, Ramiro E, et al. Acute renal failure due to sulphadiazine crystalluria in AIDS patients. Postgraduate medical journal. 1996 Sep;72(851):557–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mir N, O'Farrell N, Creagh TA, Knowles C. Obstructive renal failure requiring surgical intervention in an AIDS patient being treated with sulphadiazine. International journal of STD & AIDS. 1997 Jan;8(1):61–2.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dong BJ, Rodriguez RA, Goldschmidt RH. Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria and renal failure in a patient with AIDS. The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice / American Board of Family Practice. 1999 May-Jun;12(3):243–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Crespo M, Quereda C, Pascual J, Rivera M, Clemente L, Cano T. Patterns of sulfadiazine acute nephrotoxicity. Clinical nephrology. 2000 Jul;54(1):68–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Portoles J, Torralbo A, Prats D, Blanco J, Barrientos A. Acute renal failure and sulphadiazine crystalluria in kidney transplant. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1994;9(2):180–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Guitard J, Kamar N, Mouzin M, Borde JS, Tran-Van T, Durand D, et al. Sulfadiazine-related obstructive urinary tract lithiasis: an unusual cause of acute renal failure after kidney transplantation. Clinical nephrology. 2005 May;63(5):405–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bergan T, Brodwall EK, Vik-Mo H, Anstad U. Pharmacokinetics of sulphadiazine, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim in patients with varying renal function. Infection. 1979;7 Suppl 4:S382–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Berns JS, Cohen RM, Stumacher RJ, Rudnick MR. Renal aspects of therapy for human immunodeficiency virus and associated opportunistic infections. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1991 Mar;1(9):1061–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Swan S.K BW,. Use of drugs in patients with renal failure. In: Schrier R.W GCW, ed. Diseases of the Kidney. 6th Ed. ed. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1996:1061–80.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Oster S, Hutchison F, McCabe R. Resolution of acute renal failure in toxoplasmic encephalitis despite continuance of sulfadiazine. Reviews of infectious diseases. 1990 Jul-Aug;12(4):618–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Robson M, Levi J, Dolberg L, Rosenfeld JB. Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis following sulfadiazine therapy. Israel journal of medical sciences. 1970 Jul-Aug;6(4):561–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nanra RS, Anderton JL, Evans M, Fairley KF, Kincaid-Smith P. The use of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole in the management of chronic and recurrent upper and lower urinary tract infection. The Medical journal of Australia. 1971 Jan 2;1(1):25–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rosenfeld JB, Najenson T, Grosswater Z. Effect of long-term co-trimoxazole therapy on renal function. The Medical journal of Australia. 1975 Oct 4;2(14):546–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bennett WM, Craven R. Urinary tract infections in patients with severe renal disease. Treatment with ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Jama. 1976 Aug 23;236(8):946–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lawson DH, Paice BJ. Adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Reviews of infectious diseases. 1982 Mar-Apr;4(2):429– 33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Foltzer MA, Reese RE. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other sulfonamides. The Medical clinics of North America. 1987 Nov;71(6):1177–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bergan T, Brodwall EK. Kidney transport in man of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Chemotherapy. 1972;17(5):320–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Trottier S, Bergeron MG, Lessard C. Intrarenal distribution of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 1980 Mar;17(3):383–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tu YH, Allen LV, Jr., Fiorica VM, Albers DD. Pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim in the rat. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 1989 Jul;78(7):556–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cacini W, Myre SA. Uptake of trimethoprim by renal cortex. Biochemical pharmacology. 1985 Oct 1;34(19):3483–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Craig WA, Kunin CM. Distribution of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in tissues of rhesus monkeys. The Journal of infectious diseases. 1973 Nov;128:Suppl:575–9 p.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Berglund F, Killander J, Pompeius R. Effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole on the renal excretion of creatinine in man. The Journal of urology. 1975 Dec;114(6):802–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shouval D, Ligumsky M, Ben-Ishay D. Effect of co-trimoxazole on normal creatinine clearance. Lancet. 1978 Feb 4;1(8058):244– 5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Brautigam M F P, Baethke R, Kessel M. Zur kreatininaus scheidung beim Menschen nach Gabe von cotrimoxazole. Klin Wochenschr. 1979;57:95–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Trollfors B, Wahl M, Alestig K. Co–trimoxazole, creatinine and renal function. The Journal of infection. 1980 Sep;2(3):221–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kainer G, Rosenberg AR. Effect of co–trimoxazole on the glomerular filtration rate of healthy adults. Chemotherapy. 1981;27(4):229– 32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lee J, Hollyer R, Rodelas R, Preuss HG. The influence of trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and creatinine on renal organic anion and cation transport in rat kidney tissue. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1981 Apr;58(2):184–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kalowski S, Nanra RS, Mathew TH, Kincaid-Smith P. Deterioration in renal function in association with co-trimoxazole therapy. Lancet. 1973 Feb 24;1(7800):394–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Myre SA, McCann J, First MR, Cluxton RJ, Jr. Effect of trimethoprim on serum creatinine in healthy and chronic renal failure volunteers. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 1987 Jun;9(2):161–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Paap CM, Nahata MC. Clinical use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole during renal dysfunction. Dicp. 1989 Sep;23(9):646–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    62. Siber GR, Gorham CC, Ericson JF, Smith AL. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in children and adults with normal and impaired renal function. Reviews of infectious diseases. 1982 Mar–Apr;4(2):566–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    63.Eknoyan. Acute renal failure associated with tubulointerstitial nephropathies. In: Brenner BM LJ, ed. Acute Renal Failure. 2nd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone 1988:491–534.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    64. Siegel WH. Unusual complication of therapy with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. The Journal of urology. 1977 Mar;117(3):397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    65.Nissenson AR, Wilson C, Holazo A. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole during hemodialysis. American journal of nephrology. 1987;7(4):270–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    66.Saltissi D, Pusey CD, Rainford DJ. Recurrent acute renal failure due to antibiotic-induced interstitial nephritis. British medical journal. 1979 May 5;1(6172):1182–3.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    67.Jick H. Adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in hospitalized patients. Reviews of infectious diseases. 1982 Mar–Apr;4(2):426–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    68.Jick H, Derby LE. A large population-based follow-up study of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and cephalexin for uncommon serious drug toxicity. Pharmacotherapy. 1995 Jul–Aug;15(4):428–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    69.Hanley. The synergy of trimethoprim and sulfonamides. Postgraduate medical journal. 1969;45(Suppl):85.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    70.Buchanan N. Sulphamethoxazole, hypoalbuminaemia, crystalluria, and renal failure. British medical journal. 1978 Jul 15;2(6131):172.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    71.Ahn YH, Goldman JM. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and hyponatremia. Annals of internal medicine. 1985 Jul;103(1):161–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    72.Wofsy CB. Use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Reviews of infectious diseases. 1987 Mar–Apr;9 Suppl 2:S184–94.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    73.Mori H, Kuroda Y, Imamura S, Toyoda A, Yoshida I, Kawakami M, et al. Hyponatremia and/or hyperkalemia in patients treated with the standard dose of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan). 2003 Aug;42(8):665–9.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    74.Deans KW, Lang JR, Smith DE. Stability of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole injection in five infusion fluids. American journal of hospital pharmacy. 1982 Oct;39(10):1681–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    75.Richmond JM, Whitworth JA, Fairley KF, Kincaid-Smith P. Co-trimoxazole nephrotoxicity. Lancet. 1979 Mar 3;1(8114):493.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    76.Kraemer MJ, Kendall R, Hickman RO, Haas JE, Bierman CW. A generalized allergic reaction with acute interstitial nephritis following trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use. Annals of allergy. 1982 Dec;49(6):323–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    77.Chandra M, Chandra P, McVicar M, Susin M, Teichberg S. Rapid onset of co-trimoxazole induced interstitial nephritis. The International journal of pediatric nephrology. 1985 Oct–Dec;6(4):289–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    78.Payne FE, Jr., Giesecke TF. Multiple system reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Southern medical journal. 1987 Feb;80(2):275–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    79.Dutertre JP, Despert F, Jonville AP, Autret E, Nivet H. Acute tubular necrosis during a treatment with Bactrim. Archives francaises de pediatrie. 1991 Jun–Jul;48(6):441–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    80.Smith EJ, Light JA, Filo RS, Yum MN. Interstitial nephritis caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in renal transplant recipients. Jama. 1980 Jul 25;244(4):360–1.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    81.Tasker PR, MacGregor GA, de Wardener HE. Use of co-trimoxazole in chronic renal failure. Lancet. 1975 May 31;1(7918):1216–8.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    82.Bourgault AM, Van Scoy RE, Brewer NS, Rosenow EC. Trimethoprim with sulfamethoxazole for treatment of infection with Pneu-mocystis carinii in renal insufficiency. Chest. 1978 Jul;74(1):91–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    83.Brockner J, Boisen E. Fatal multisystem toxicity after co-trimoxazole. Lancet. 1978 Apr 15;1(8068):831.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    84.Finlayson WB, Johnson G. Multisystem toxicity after co-trimoxazole. Lancet. 1978 Sep 23;2(8091):682–3.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    85.Epstein M, Wright JM. Severe multisystem disease caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: possible role of an in vitro lymphocyte assay. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 1990 Sep;86(3 Pt 1):416–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    86.Thompson JF, Chalmers DH, Hunnisett AG, Wood RF, Morris PJ. Nephrotoxicity of trimethoprim and cotrimoxazole in renal al-lograft recipients treated with cyclosporine. Transplantation. 1983 Aug;36(2):204–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    87.Ringden O, Myrenfors P, Klintmalm G, Tyden G, Ost L. Nephrotoxicity by co-trimoxazole and cyclosporin in transplanted patients. Lancet. 1984 May 5;1(8384):1016–7.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    88.Berg KJ, Nordby G, Rootwelt K, Djoseland O, Fauchald P, Mehl A, et al. Effects on renal function of combined treatment with trimethoprim and cyclosporine A in kidney transplant patients. Transplantation proceedings. 1988 Jun;20(3):413–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    89.Sen S, Bayrak R, Ok E, Basdemir G. Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis and vasculitis or vasculary rejection in renal allografts. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001 Jan;37(1):E4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    90.Josephson MA, Chiu MY, Woodle ES, Thistlethwaite JR, Haas M. Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis in renal allografts: his-topathologic features and clinical course in six patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 1999 Sep;34(3):540–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Colvin RB FL. Interstitial Nephritis. In: Tisher CC BB, ed. Renal Pathology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott 1994:723–68.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Maki DG, Fox BC, Kuntz J, Sollinger HW, Belzer FO. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study of trimethoprim-sulfameth-oxazole for prophylaxis of infection in renal transplantation. Side effects of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, interaction with cyclosporine. The Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. 1992 Jan;119(1):11–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kimmelt MS PT, Kramer NC, Thompson AM. In vitro and in vivo interaction of sulfamethoxazole with cyclosporin A measurement by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HRLC). Kidney international. 1985;27:343A.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bourgoignie JJ. Renal complications of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Kidney international. 1990 Jun;37(6):1571–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rao TK, Friedman EA. Renal syndromes in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): lessons learned from analysis over 5 years. Artificial organs. 1988 Jun;12(3):206–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Humphreys MH, Schoenfeld PY. Renal complications in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). American journal of nephrology. 1987;7(1):1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bourgoignie J. J O-BC, Green DF, Pardo V. Renal Disease and AIDS. In: Broder S MTJ, Bolognesi D, ed. Textbook of AIDS Disease. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins 1993:597–608.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Walzer PD, Perl D P, Krogstad DJ, Rawson PG, Schultz MG. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the United States. Epidemiologic, diagnostic, and clinical features. Annals of internal medicine. 1974 Jan;80(1):83–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Glatt AE, Chirgwin K. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Archives of internal medicine. 1990 Feb;150(2):271–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kovacs JA, Hiemenz JW, Macher AM, Stover D, Murray HW, Shelhamer J, et al. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: a comparison between patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and patients with other immunodeficiencies. Annals of internal medicine. 1984 May;100(5):663–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wolfsy. Use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Reviews of infectious diseases. 1987;9:S184–94.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wharton JM, Coleman DL, Wofsy CB, Luce JM, Blumenfeld W, Hadley WK, et al. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pentamidine for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A prospective randomized trial. Annals of internal medicine. 1986 Jul;105(1):37–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sattler FR, Cowan R, Nielsen DM, Ruskin J. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole compared with pentamidine for treatment of Pneu-mocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A prospective, noncrossover study. Annals of internal medicine. 1988 Aug 15;109(4):280–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gordin FM, Simon GL, Wofsy CB, Mills J. Adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Annals of internal medicine. 1984 Apr;100(4):495–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zuniga CA Chua A, Alpert H, Vaamonde CA. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole nephrotoxicity in patients with AIDS. Nat Kidney Found 1990;20:A29(abstract).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Chua A ZC, Alpert H, Vaamonde CA. Trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole nephrotoxicity in the sodium-depleted rat. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1990;1:608(abstract).Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Harvey AM, Malvin RL. Comparison of creatinine and inulin clearances in male and female rats. The American journal of physiology. 1965 Oct;209(4):849–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gouvea W, Vaamonde CM, Owens B, Alpert H, Pardo V, Vaamonde CA. The protection against gentamicin nephrotoxicity in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat is not related to gender. Life sciences. 1992;51(22):1747–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bozzette SA, Finkelstein DM, Spector SA, Frame P, Powderly WG, He W, et al. A randomized trial of three antipneumocystis agents in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group. The New England journal of medicine. 1995 Mar 16;332(11):693–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Para MF, Finkelstein D, Becker S, Dohn M, Walawander A, Black JR. Reduced toxicity with gradual initiation of trimethoprim-sul-famethoxazole as primary prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: AIDS Clinical Trials Group 268. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 2000 Aug 1;24(4):337–43.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Boubaker K, Sudre P, Bally F, Vogel G, Meuwly JY, Glauser M P, et al. Changes in renal function associated with indinavir. AIDS (London, England). 1998 Dec 24;12(18):F249–54.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kopp JB, Miller KD, Mican JA, Feuerstein IM, Vaughan E, Baker C, et al. Crystalluria and urinary tract abnormalities associated with indinavir. Annals of internal medicine. 1997 Jul 15;127(2):119–25.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Valencia ME J-NI, Rodriguez-Rosado R, Soriano V, Carrillo de Albornoz ML, Gonzalez Lahoz J. Incidence of nephrolithiasis in HIV infected patients under indinavir treatment. [abstract 448]. Sixth European Conference on Clinical Aspects and Treatment of HIV Infection; October 1997; Hamburg; October 1997.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    de Araujo M, Seguro AC. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) potentiates indinavir nephrotoxicity. Antiviral therapy. 2002 Sep;7(3):181–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Medina I, Mills J, Leoung G, Hopewell PC, Lee B, Modin G, et al. Oral therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A controlled trial of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus trimethoprim-dapsone. The New England journal of medicine. 1990 Sep 20;323(12):776–82.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Greenberg S, Reiser IW, Chou SY, Porush JG. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induces reversible hyperkalemia. Annals of internal medicine. 1993 Aug 15;119(4):291–5.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Choi MJ, Fernandez PC, Patnaik A, Coupaye-Gerard B, D'Andrea D, Szerlip H, et al. Brief report: trimethoprim-induced hyperka-lemia in a patient with AIDS. The New England journal of medicine. 1993 Mar 11;328(10):703–6.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    (a) Modest GA PB, Mascoli N; (b) Pennypacker LC, Mintzer J, Pitner J; (c) Canaday DH, Johnson JR; (d) Reiser IW, Chou SY (e) Velazquez H, Ellison DH. Hyperkalemia in elderly patients receiving standard doses of trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole.. Annals of internal medicine. 1994;120:437–8(letters).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Perazella MA. Hyperkalemia and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: a new problem emerges 25 years later. Connecticut medicine. 1997 Aug;61(8):451–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Funai N, Shimamoto Y, Matsuzaki M, Watanabe M, Tokioka T, Sueoka E, et al. Hyperkalaemia with renal tubular dysfunction by sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with lymphoid malignancy. Haematologia. 1993;25(2):137–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lawson DH, Jick H. Adverse reactions to co-trimoxazole in hospitalized medical patients. The American journal of the medical sciences. 1978 Jan-Feb;275(1):53–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kalin MF, Poretsky L, Seres DS, Zumoff B. Hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The American journal of medicine. 1987 May;82(5):1035–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Guy RJ, Turberg Y, Davidson RN, Finnerty G, MacGregor GA, Wise PH. Mineralocorticoid deficiency in HIV infection. BMJ (Clinical research ed. 1989 Feb 25;298(6672):496–7.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Murphy CE, Ratnavel RG, Davidson AC. Mineralocorticoid deficiency in HIV infection. BMJ (Clinical research ed. 1989 Apr 29;298(6681):1181.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Velazquez H, Perazella MA, Wright FS, Ellison DH. Renal mechanism of trimethoprim-induced hyperkalemia. Annals of internal medicine. 1993 Aug 15;119(4):296–301.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Schlanger LE, Kleyman TR, Ling BN. K(+)-sparing diuretic actions of trimethoprim: inhibition of Na+ channels in A6 distal nephron cells. Kidney international. 1994 Apr;45(4):1070–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Murphy JL. Renal tubular acidosis in children treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole during therapy for acute lymphoid leukemia. Pediatrics. 1992 Jun;89(6 Pt 1):1072–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Schoenbach EB GE. The pharmacology, mode of action, and therapeutic potentialities of stilbamidine, pentamidine, propamidine and other aromatic diamidines. A review. Medicine. 1948;27:327–77.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Van Hoof L HC, Peel E. Pentamidine in the prevention and treatment of trypanosomiasis. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1944;37:271– 80.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Napier LE SGP. The treatment of kala-azar with diaminodiphenoxypentane. Preliminary observations on the treatment of 32 cases. Indian Med Gaz. 1943;78:177–83Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ivady G, Paldy L, Koltay M, Toth G, Kovacs Z. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Lancet. 1967 Mar 18;1(7490):616–7.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Western KA, Perera DR, Schultz MG. Pentamidine isethionate in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Annals of internal medicine. 1970 Nov;73(5):695–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Hughes WT, Feldman S, Chaudhary SC, Ossi MJ, Cox F, Sanyal SK. Comparison of pentamidine isethionate and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The Journal of pediatrics. 1978 Feb;92(2):285–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Sands M, Kron MA, Brown RB. Pentamidine: a review. Reviews of infectious diseases. 1985 Sep-Oct;7(5):625–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Pearson RD, Hewlett EL. Pentamidine for the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and other protozoal diseases. Annals of internal medicine. 1985 Nov;103(5):782–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Haley. Pentamidine in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Microlink Update. 1987;3:1–4.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    O'Brien JG, Dong BJ, Coleman RL, Gee L, Balano KB. A 5-year retrospective review of adverse drug reactions and their risk factors in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who were receiving intravenous pentamidine therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 May;24(5):854–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Sattler FR, Frame P, Davis R, Nichols L, Shelton B, Akil B, et al. Trimetrexate with leucovorin versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for moderate to severe episodes of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS: a prospective, controlled multicenter investigation of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 029/031. The Journal of infectious diseases. 1994 Jul;170(1):165–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Waalkes T P, Denham C, DeVita VT. Pentamidine: clinical pharmacologic correlations in man and mice. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1970 Jul-Aug;11(4):505–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Bernard EM, Donnelly HJ, Maher M P, Armstrong D. Use of a new bioassay to study pentamidine pharmacokinetics. The Journal of infectious diseases. 1985 Oct;152(4):750–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Conte JE, Jr. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous pentamidine in patients with normal renal function or receiving hemodialysis. The Journal of infectious diseases. 1991 Jan;163(1):169–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Bronner U, Gustafsson LL, Doua F, Ericsson O, Miezan T, Rais M, et al. Pharmacokinetics and adverse reactions after a single dose of pentamidine in patients with Trypanosoma gambiense sleeping sickness. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 1995 Mar;39(3):289–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Vohringer HF AK. Pharmakokinetik von Pentamidin bei knochenmarktransplantierten und AIDS-patienten. In: Gruyter Wd, ed. Pneumocystis-carinii-Pneumonie bei Immunsuppression Berlin, New York 1991:25–32.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Lidman C, Bronner U, Gustafsson LL, Rombo L. Plasma pentamidine concentrations vary between individuals with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and the drug is actively secreted by the kidney. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 1994 Apr;33(4):803– 10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Conte JE, Jr., Upton RA, Phelps RT, Wofsy CB, Zurlinden E, Lin ET. Use of a specific and sensitive assay to determine pentamidine pharmacokinetics in patients with AIDS. The Journal of infectious diseases. 1986 Dec;154(6):923–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Berger BJ, Hall JE, Tidwell RR. The distribution of multiple doses of pentamidine in rats. Pharmacology & toxicology. 1990 Mar;66(3):234–6.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Navin TR, Dickinson CM, Adams SR, Mayersohn M, Juranek DD. Effect of azotemia in dogs on the pharmacokinetics of pentami-dine. The Journal of infectious diseases. 1987 May;155(5):1020–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Berger BJ, Lombardy RJ, Marbury GD, Bell CA, Dykstra CC, Hall JE, et al. Metabolic N-hydroxylation of pentamidine in vitro. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 1990 Sep;34(9):1678–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Donnelly H, Bernard EM, Rothkotter H, Gold JW, Armstrong D. Distribution of pentamidine in patients with AIDS. The Journal of infectious diseases. 1988 May;157(5):985–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Poola NR, Kalis M, Plakogiannis FM, Taft DR. Characterization of pentamidine excretion in the isolated perfused rat kidney. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2003 Sep;52(3):397–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Andersen R, Boedicker M, Ma M, Goldstein EJ. Adverse reactions associated with pentamidine isethionate in AIDS patients: recommendations for monitoring therapy. Drug intelligence & clinical pharmacy. 1986 Nov;20(11):862–8.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Waskin H, Stehr-Green JK, Helmick CG, Sattler FR. Risk factors for hypoglycemia associated with pentamidine therapy for Pneu-mocystis pneumonia. Jama. 1988 Jul 15;260(3):345–7.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Lachaal M, Venuto RC. Nephrotoxicity and hyperkalemia in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treated with pentamidine. The American journal of medicine. 1989 Sep;87(3):260–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Chua A BJ, Alpert H, Vaamonde CA. Risk factors for pentamidine nephrotoxicity in AIDS patients. Nat Kidney Found. 1989;19:A5 (abstract).Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Briceland LL, Bailie GR. Pentamidine -associated nephrotoxicity and hyperkalemia in patients with AIDS. Dicp. 1991 Nov ;25(11):1171– 4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Shuster M, Dunn M. Pentamidine and hematuria. Annals of internal medicine. 1986 Jul;105(1):146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sensakovic JW, Suarez M, Perez G, Johnson ES, Smith LG. Pentamidine treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Association with acute renal failure and myoglobinuria. Archives of internal medicine. 1985 Dec;145(12):2247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Chua A BJ, Papendick R, Alpert H, Vaamonde CA. Pentamidine nephrotoxicity in the rat. Kidney international. 1990;37:478A.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Stehr-Green JK, Helmick CG. Pentamidine and renal toxicity. The New England journal of medicine. 1985 Sep 12;313(11):694–5.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Antoniskis D, Larsen RA. Acute, rapidly progressive renal failure with simultaneous use of amphotericin B and pentamidine. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 1990 Mar;34(3):470–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Morin D, Dumas ML, Valette H, Dumas R. Transitory acute kidney insufficiency and insulin-dependent after treatment of kala-azar with pentamidine and N-methylglucamine antimony. Archives francaises de pediatrie. 1991 May;48(5):349–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Bryceson AD, Chulay JD, Mugambi M, Were JB, Gachihi G, Chunge CN, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis unresponsive to antimonial drugs. II. Response to high dosage sodium stibogluconate or prolonged treatment with pentamidine. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1985;79(5):705–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Golden JA, Chernoff D, Hollander H, Feigal D, Conte JE. Prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia by inhaled pentamidine. Lancet. 1989 Mar 25;1(8639):654–7.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Jensen BN, Nielsen TL, Lerche B, Jensen TH, Backer V, Mathiesen L, et al. Prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia relapse by aerosolised pentamidine, 60 mg biweekly, using an Acorn System 22 nebuliser. Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases. 1990;22(5):533–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Link H, Vohringer HF, Wingen F, Bragas B, Schwardt A, Ehninger G. Pentamidine aerosol for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after BMT. Bone marrow transplantation. 1993 May;11(5):403–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Saukkonen K, Garland R, Koziel H. Aerosolized pentamidine as alternative primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in adult hepatic and renal transplant recipients. Chest. 1996 May;109(5):1250–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Miller RF, Delany S, Semple SJ. Acute renal failure after nebulised pentamidine. Lancet. 1989 Jun 3;1(8649):1271–2.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Chapelon C, Raguin G, De Gennes C. Renal insufficiency with nebulised pentamidine. Lancet. 1989 Oct 28;2(8670):1045–6.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Soo Hoo GW, Mohsenifar Z, Meyer RD. Inhaled or intravenous pentamidine therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS. A randomized trial. Annals of internal medicine. 1990 Aug 1;113(3):195–202.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    French MH MA. Some metabolic disturbances in domestic stock following injection of 4:4′ -diamidine 1:5 diphenoxypentane. Vet Rec. 1941;53:413–6.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Wien R FW, Scotcher NM. The metabolic effects produced by certain aromatic diamidines. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1943;37:19– 33.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Makulu DR, Waalkes TP. Interaction between aromatic diamidines and nucleic acids: possible implications for chemotherapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1975 Feb;54(2):305–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Gambertoglio JG AF, Blythe WB. Use of drugs in patients with renal failure. In: Schrier R.W GCW, ed. Diseases of the Kidney. 5th ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Co 1993:3211–68.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Fortunato SJ, Bawdon RE. Determination of pentamidine transfer in the in vitro perfused human cotyledon with high-performance liquid chromatography. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 1989 Mar;160(3):759–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    DeVita VT, Emmer M, Levine A, Jacobs B, Berard C. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: successful diagnosis treatment of two patients with associated malignant processes. The New England journal of medicine. 1969 Feb 6;280(6):287–91.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Peltz S, Hashmi S. Pentamidine-induced severe hyperkalemia. The American journal of medicine. 1989 Dec;87(6):698–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Buff DD, Aboal AA. Pentamidine-associated renal dysfunction and hyperkalemia. The American journal of medicine. 1990 May;88(5):552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Bibler MR, Chou TC, Toltzis RJ, Wade PA. Recurrent ventricular tachycardia due to pentamidine-induced cardiotoxicity. Chest. 1988 Dec;94(6):1303–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Owens RC, Jr., Nolin TD. Antimicrobial-associated QT interval prolongation: pointes of interest. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Dec 15;43(12):1603–11.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Balslev U, Berild D, Nielsen TL. Cardiac arrest during treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with intravenous pentamidine isethionate. Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases. 1992;24(1):111–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Kleyman TR, Roberts C, Ling BN. A mechanism for pentamidine-induced hyperkalemia: inhibition of distal nephron sodium transport. Annals of internal medicine. 1995 Jan 15;122(2):103–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Gabriels G, Stockem E, Greven J. Potassium-sparing renal effects of trimethoprim and structural analogues. Nephron. 2000 Sep;86(1):70–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Shah GM, Alvarado P, Kirschenbaum MA. Symptomatic hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia with renal magnesium wasting associated with pentamidine therapy in a patient with AIDS. The American journal of medicine. 1990 Sep;89(3):380–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Burnett RJ, Reents SB. Severe hypomagnesemia induced by pentamidine. Dicp. 1990 Mar;24(3):239–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Gradon JD, Fricchione L, Sepkowitz D. Severe hypomagnesemia associated with pentamidine therapy. Reviews of infectious diseases. 1991 May-Jun;13(3):511–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Mani S. Pentamidine-induced renal magnesium wasting. AIDS (London, England). 1992 Jun;6(6):594–5.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Youle MS, Clarbour J, Gazzard B, Chanas A. Severe hypocalcaemia in AIDS patients treated with foscarnet and pentamidine. Lancet. 1988 Jun 25;1(8600):1455–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Bouchard P, Sai P, Reach G, Caubarrere I, Ganeval D, Assan R. Diabetes mellitus following pentamidine-induced hypoglycemia in humans. Diabetes. 1982 Jan;31(1):40–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Sharpe SM. Pentamidine and hypoglycemia. Annals of internal medicine. 1983 Jul;99(1):128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Murdoch JK KJ. Pentamidine and hypoglycemia Annals of internal medicine. 1983;99:879 (letter).Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Stahl-Bayliss CM, Kalman CM, Laskin OL. Pentamidine-induced hypoglycemia in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1986 Mar;39(3):271–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Collins J, Pien FD, Houk JH. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus associated with pentamidine. The American journal of the medical sciences. 1989 Mar;297(3):174–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Hitchings G. The use of an antimetabolite in chemotherapy of malaria and other infections. Clin Pharm Ther. 1960;1:570–89.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Ritschel WA, Hammer GV, Thompson GA. Pharmacokinetics of antimalarials and proposals for dosage regimens. International journal of clinical pharmacology and biopharmacy. 1978 Sep;16(9):395–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    White N. Clinical pharmacokinetics of antimalarial drugs. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 1985;10(3):187–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Opravil M, Heald A, Lazzarin A, Hirschel B, Luthy R, and the Swiss Group for Clinical Studies in AIDS.. Combined prophylaxis of pneumocystis carinii pneumoniae and toxoplasmosis: dapsone+pyrimethamine vs aerolized pentamidine. AIDS (London, England). 1992;6:S8.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Opravil M, Keusch G, Luthy R. Pyrimethamine inhibits renal secretion of creatinine. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 1993 May;37(5):1056–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Paniker U, Levine N. Dapsone and sulfapyridine. Dermatologic clinics. 2001 Jan;19(1):79–86, viii.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Alves-Rodrigues EN, Ribeiro LC, Silva MD, Takiuchi A, Fontes CJ. Dapsone syndrome with acute renal failure during leprosy treatment: case report. Braz J Infect Dis. 2005 Feb;9(1):84–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Sener O, Doganci L, Safali M, Besirbellioglu B, Bulucu F, Pahsa A. Severe dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2006;16(4):268–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Bucaretchi F, Vicente DC, Pereira RM, Tresoldi AT. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome in an adolescent during treatment during of leprosy. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo. 2004 Nov-Dec;46(6):331–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Zuidema J, Hilbers-Modderman ES, Merkus FW. Clinical pharmacokinetics of dapsone. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 1986 Jul-Aug;11(4):299–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Aronoff GR BJ, Brier ME, Golper TA, Morrison G, Singer I, Swan SK, Bennett WM. Drug Prescribing in Renal Failure. Dosing Guidelines for Adults. 4th Ed ed. Philadelphia 1999:48.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Lee BL, Medina I, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, 3rd, Wofsy CB, Mills Jt. Dapsone, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole plasma levels during treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Evidence of drug interactions. Annals of internal medicine. 1989 Apr 15;110(8):606–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Belmont A. Dapsone induced nephrotic syndrome. Jama. 1967;200:262–3.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Hoffbrand BI. Dapsone and renal papillary necrosis. British medical journal. 1978 Jan 14;1(6105):78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Chugh KS, Singhal PC, Sharma BK, Mahakur AC, Pal Y, Datta BN, et al. Acute renal failure due to intravascular hemolysis in the North Indian patients. The American journal of the medical sciences. 1977 Sep-Oct;274(2):139–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Alves-Rodrigues EN, Ribeiro LC, Silva MD, Takiuchi A, Rabel-Filho OC, Martini-Filho D, et al. Renal hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with dapsone. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005 Oct;46(4):e51–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Lau G. A fatal case of drug-induced multi-organ damage in a patient with Hansen's disease: dapsone syndrome or rifampicin toxicity? Forensic science international. 1995 May 22;73(2):109–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Kenner DJ, Holt K, Agnello R, Chester GH. Permanent retinal damage following massive dapsone overdose. The British journal of ophthalmology. 1980 Oct;64(10):741–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Higuchi M, Agatsuma T, Iizima M, Yamazaki Y, Saita T, Ichikawa T, et al. A case of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with multiple organ involvement treated with plasma exchange. Ther Apher Dial. 2005 Oct;9(5):412–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Neuvonen PJ, Elonen E, Haapanen EJ. Acute dapsone intoxication: clinical findings and effect of oral charcoal and haemodialysis on dapsone elimination. Acta medica Scandinavica. 1983;214(3):215–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Endre ZH, Charlesworth JA, Macdonald GJ, Woodbridge L. Successful treatment of acute dapsone intoxication using charcoal hemoperfusion. Australian and New Zealand journal of medicine. 1983 Oct;13(5):509–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Hooper D. Quinolones. In: Mandel GL BJ, Dolin R, ed. Principles and practice of infectious diseases. New York: Churchill Livingstone 1995:364–76.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Lesher GY, Froelich EJ, Gruett MD, Bailey JH, Brundage R P. 1,8-Naphthyridine Derivatives. a New Class of Chemotherapeutic Agents. Journal of medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry. 1962 Sep;91:1063–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Fluoroquinolones U. USPDI: Fluoroquinolones. In: The United States Pharmacopeial Convention IDIftHCP, ed. 14th ed. Rockville 1994:1392–401.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Ferry N, Cuisinaud G, Pozet N, Zech PY, Sassard J. Nalidixic acid kinetics after single and repeated oral doses. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1981 May;29(5):695–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Portmann GA, McChesney EW, Stander H, Moore WE. Pharmacokinetic model for nalidixic acid in man. II. Parameters for absorption, metabolism, and elimination. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 1966 Jan;55(1):72–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Porter G. Antimicrobial nephrotoxicity. In: Massry SG GR, ed. Textbook of Nephrology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins 1989:812–8.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Bergan T. Pharmacokinetics of fluorinated quinolones. In: VT A, ed. The Quinolones. London: Academic Press 1988:119–54Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Gerding DN, Hitt JA. Tissue penetration of the new quinolones in humans. Reviews of infectious diseases. 1989 Jul-Aug;11 Suppl 5:S1046–57.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Plaisance KI, Drusano GL, Forrest A, Weir MR, Standiford HC. Effect of renal function on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 1990 Jun;34(6):1031–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Drusano GL. An overview of the pharmacology of intravenously administered ciprofloxacin. The American journal of medicine. 1987 Apr 27;82(4A):339–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Rohwedder R, Bergan T, Thorsteinsson SB, Scholl H. Transintestinal elimination of ciprofloxacin. Chemotherapy. 1990;36(2):77– 84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Nouaille-Degorce B, Veau C, Dautrey S, Tod M, Laouari D, Carbon C, et al. Influence of renal failure on ciprofloxacin pharmacoki-netics in rats. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 1998 Feb;42(2):289–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Ljungberg B, Nilsson-Ehle I. Pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in the elderly: increased oral bioavailability and reduced renal clearance. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1989 Jun;8(6):515–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    R Stahlmann HL. The Quinolones. In: VT A, ed. Safety overview: Toxicity, adverse events, and drug interactions. London: Academic Press 1988:201–33.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Johnson PR, Liu Yin JA, Tooth JA. A randomized trial of high-dose ciprofloxacin versus azlocillin and netilmicin in the empirical therapy of febrile neutropenic patients. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 1992 Aug;30(2):203–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Ball P. Ciprofloxacin: an overview of adverse experiences. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 1986 Nov;18 Suppl D:187– 93.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Arcieri G, Griffith E, Gruenwaldt G, Heyd A, O'Brien B, Becker N, et al. Ciprofloxacin: an update on clinical experience. The American journal of medicine. 1987 Apr 27;82(4A):381–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Gerritsen WR, Peters A, Henny FC, Brouwers JR. Ciprofloxacin-induced nephrotoxicity. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1987;2(5):382– 3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Rippelmeyer DJ, Synhavsky A. Ciprofloxacin and allergic interstitial nephritis. Annals of internal medicine. 1988 Jul 15;109(2):170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Lee CW, Fialkow RZ, Van Wyck D. Adverse effects associated with the newer fluoroquinolones. Am J Kidney Dis. 1989 Jun;13(6):510– 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Hootkins R, Fenves AZ, Stephens MK. Acute renal failure secondary to oral ciprofloxacin therapy: a presentation of three cases and a review of the literature. Clinical nephrology. 1989 Aug;32(2):75–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Ying LS, Johnson CA. Ciprofloxacin-induced interstitial nephritis. Clinical pharmacy. 1989 Jul;8(7):518–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Helmink R, Benediktsson H. Ciprofloxacin-induced allergic interstitial nephritis. Nephron. 1990;55(4):432–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Rastogi S, Atkinson JL, McCarthy JT. Allergic nephropathy associated with ciprofloxacin. Mayo Clinic proceedings. 1990 Jul;65(7):987–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Allon M, Lopez EJ, Min KW. Acute renal failure due to ciprofloxacin. Archives of internal medicine. 1990 Oct;150(10):2187–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Murray KM, Wilson MG. Suspected ciprofloxacin-induced interstitial nephritis. Dicp. 1990 Apr;24(4):379–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Hatton J, Haagensen D. Renal dysfunction associated with ciprofloxacin. Pharmacotherapy. 1990;10(5):337–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Simpson J, Watson AR, Mellersh A, Nelson CS, Dodd K. Typhoid fever, ciprofloxacin, and renal failure. Archives of disease in childhood. 1991 Sep;66(9):1083–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Arvieux C, Charasse C, Guilhem I, Rivalan J, Le Pogamp P, Ramee M P. Acute kidney failure due to tubulo-interstitial nephropathy after treatment with ciprofloxacin. Presse Med. 1991 Oct 26;20(34):1686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Gonski PN. Ciprofloxacin-induced renal failure in an elderly patient. The Medical journal of Australia. 1991 May 6;154(9):638–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    George MJ, Dew RB, 3rd, Daly JS. Acute renal failure after an overdose of ciprofloxacin. Archives of internal medicine. 1991 Mar;151(3):620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Andersen I, Sjostrom P. Ciprofloxacin can cause allergic interstitial nephritis with acute renal failure. Lakartidningen. 1991 Apr 3;88(14):1298–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Bailey JR, Trott SA, Philbrick JT. Ciprofloxacin-induced acute interstitial nephritis. American journal of nephrology. 1992;12(4):271– 3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Lo WK, Rolston KV, Rubenstein EB, Bodey G P. Ciprofloxacin-induced nephrotoxicity in patients with cancer. Archives of internal medicine. 1993 May 24;153(10):1258–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Lien YH, Hansen R, Kern WF, Bangert J, Nagle RB, Ko M, et al. Ciprofloxacin-induced granulomatous interstitial nephritis and localized elastolysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 1993 Oct;22(4):598–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Reece RJ, Nicholls AJ. Ciprofloxacin-induced acute interstitial nephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1996 Feb;11(2):393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Rosado LJ, Siskind MS, Copeland JG. Acute interstitial nephritis in a cardiac transplant recipient receiving ciprofloxacin. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 1994 May;107(5):1364; author reply -6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Shih DJ, Korbet SM, Rydel JJ, Schwartz MM. Renal vasculitis associated with ciprofloxacin. Am J Kidney Dis. 1995 Sep;26(3):516– 9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Dharnidharka VR, Nadeau K, Cannon CL, Harris HW, Rosen S. Ciprofloxacin overdose: acute renal failure with prominent apoptotic changes. Am J Kidney Dis. 1998 Apr;31(4):710–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Avent CK, Krinsky D, Kirklin JK, Bourge RC, Figg WD. Synergistic nephrotoxicity due to ciprofloxacin and cyclosporine. The American journal of medicine. 1988 Sep;85(3):452–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Anand A. Ciprofloxacin nephrotoxicity. Archives of internal medicine. 1993 Dec 13;153(23):2705–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Raja N, Miller WE, McMillan R, Mason JR. Ciprofloxacin-associated acute renal failure in patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue. Bone marrow transplantation. 1998 Jun;21(12):1283–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Yew WW, Chau CH, Wong PC, Choi HY. Ciprofloxacin-induced renal dysfunction in patients with mycobacterial lung infections. Tuber Lung Dis. 1995 Apr;76(2):173–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Hadimeri H, Almroth G, Cederbrant K, Enestrom S, Hultman P, Lindell A. Allergic nephropathy associated with norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin therapy. Report of two cases and review of the literature. Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology. 1997 Oct;31(5):481–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Ortiz A, Plaza JJ, Egido J. Ciprofloxacin-associated tubulointerstitial nephritis with linear tubular basement membrane deposits. Nephron. 1992;60(2):248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Blum MD, Graham DJ, McCloskey CA. Temafloxacin syndrome: review of 95 cases. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Jun;18(6):946–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Gauffre A, Mircheva J, Glotz D, Fillastre J P, Simon P, Beaune PH, et al. Autoantibodies against a kidney—liver protein associated with quinolone-induced acute interstitial nephritis or hepatitis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1997 Sep;12(9):1961–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Moffett BS, Rosenstein BJ, Mogayzel PJ, Jr. Ciprofloxacin-induced renal insufficiency in cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros. 2003 Sep;2(3):152–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Bald M, Ratjen F, Nikolaizik W, Wingen AM. Ciprofloxacin-induced acute renal failure in a patient with cystic fibrosis. The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 2001 Mar;20(3):320–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Gallelli L, Gallelli A, Vero G, Roccia F, Pelaia G, De Sarro G, et al. Acute renal failure probably induced by prulifloxacin in an elderly woman: a first case report. Clinical drug investigation. 2006;26(1):49–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Schluter G. Ciprofloxacin: Review of potential toxicologic effects. The American journal of medicine. 1987;82:S91–3.Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Christ W, Lehnert T, Ulbrich B. Specific toxicologic aspects of the quinolones. Reviews of infectious diseases. 1988 Jan-Feb;10 Suppl 1:S141–6.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Thorsteinsson SB, Bergan T, Oddsdottir S, Rohwedder R, Holm R. Crystalluria and ciprofloxacin, influence of urinary pH and hydration. Chemotherapy. 1986;32(5):408–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Kruger HU, Schuler U, Proksch B, Gobel M, Ehninger G. Investigation of potential interaction of ciprofloxacin with cyclosporine in bone marrow transplant recipients. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 1990 Jun;34(6):1048–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Robinson JA, Venezio FR, Costanzo-Nordin MR, Pifarre R, O'Keefe PJ. Patients receiving quinolones and cyclosporine after heart transplantation. The Journal of heart transplantation. 1990 Jan-Feb;9(1):30–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Elston RA, Taylor J. Possible interaction of ciprofloxacin with cyclosporin A. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 1988 May;21(5):679–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Thomson DJ, Menkis AH, McKenzie FN. Norfloxacin-cyclosporine interaction. Transplantation. 1988 Aug;46(2):312–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Vogt P, Schorn T, Frei U. Ofloxacin in the treatment of urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients. Infection. 1988 May-Jun;16(3):175–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Gluckman E, Devergie A, Lokiec F, Traineau R, Cosset JM, Lemercier N, et al. Role of immunosuppressive drugs for prevention of graft-v-host disease after human HLA matched bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation proceedings. 1987 Dec;19(6 Suppl 7):61–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Rossi E, Silvestri MG, Manari A, Savazzi G, Migone L. Acute renal failure and piromidic acid. Nephron. 1982;32(1):80–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Godin M, Ducastelle T, Bercoff E, Dubois D, Fillastre J P, Bourreille J. Renal failure and quinolone. Nephron. 1984;37(1):70–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Boelaert J, de Jaegere P P, Daneels R, Schurgers M, Gordts B, van Landuyt HW. Case report of renal failure during norfloxacin therapy. Clinical nephrology. 1986 May;25(5):272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Famularo G, De Simone C. Nephrotoxicity and purpura associated with levofloxacin. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. 2002 Sep;36(9):1380–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Zaigraykin N, Kovalev J, Elias N, Naschitz JE. Levofloxacin-induced interstitial nephritis and vasculitis in an elderly woman. Isr Med Assoc J. 2006 Oct;8(10):726–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Ramalakshmi S, Bastacky S, Johnson J P. Levofloxacin-induced granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003 Feb;41(2): E7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Wood ML SS. Levaquin induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis--two case reports. J Miss State Med Assoc. 2002;43(4):116–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Krasula RW, Pernet AG. Comparison of organ-specific toxicity of temafloxacin in animals and humans. The American journal of medicine. 1991 Dec 30;91(6A):38S–41S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Norrby SR, Pernet AG. Assessment of adverse events during drug development: experience with temafloxacin. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 1991 Dec;28 Suppl C:111–9.Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    Davis GJ, McKenzie BE. Toxicologic evaluation of ofloxacin. The American journal of medicine. 1989 Dec 29;87(6C):43S–6S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Mouton Y, Ajana F, Chidiac C, Capron MH, Home P, Masquelier AM. A multicenter study of lomefloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfam-ethoxazole in the treatment of uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis. The American journal of medicine. 1992 Apr 6;92(4A):87S– 90S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Shiba K, Saito A, Shimada J, Hori S, Kaji M, Miyahara T, et al. Renal handling of fleroxacin in rabbits, dogs, and humans. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 1990 Jan;34(1):58–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriel N. Contreras
    • 1
  • Cristiane Mocelin Carvalho
    • 1
  • Jorge M. Diego
    • 1
  • Decio Carvalho
    • 1
  • Isabel Espinal
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of NephrologyUniversity of Miami, Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations