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Beta-lactam antibiotics

  • Constantin Cojocel

The large family of β-lactams comprises penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, monobactams, carbacephems and carbapenems and are so named since they all containing the β-lactam moiety.

Penicillin was the first β-lactam antibiotic and was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming at St. Mary’s Hospital, London [1]. The β-lactam chemical structure for penicillin was first proposed by Abraham and Chain in 1943 and finally established in 1945 by X-ray crystallographic analysis. In the same year, Giuseppe Brotzu, a Sardinian professor of bacteriology, isolated Cephalosporium acremonium from the sea near a sewage outfall at Cagliari, which produced antibiotic material with a broad spectrum of activity. It was almost eight years later in 1953 when Newton and Abraham, while studying the production of antibiotics by Brotzu’s Cephalosporium, that they discovered a penicillin-like substance providing resistance to hydrolysis by penicillinases which was named cephalosporin C.

Keywords

Renal Cortex Acute Interstitial Nephritis Cephalosporin Antibiotic Nephrotoxic Potential Renal Cortical Slice 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Constantin Cojocel
    • 1
  1. 1.Kuwait UniversityKuwait

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