How to Address the Turkish Paradox of Innovation to Build a Competitive Economy?

  • Lale Gumusluoglu
  • Şirin Elçi
Part of the International Studies In Entrepreneurship book series (ISEN, volume 21)


The ability to innovate has become a crucial prerequisite of strong organizations as well as economies. Theoretical and empirical evidence demonstrates that developing countries with effective innovation policies and well-functioning national innovation systems are better positioned to close the development gap and improve their competitiveness. Turkey started discussing the innovation subject from the policy perspective in the mid-1990s, during the same time as the EU, where—at that time—a wide-ranging debate was stimulated by the “Green Paper on Innovation,” and the government defined its main objective in this topic as “the establishment of the National Innovation System that would enable systematic operation of the whole institutions and mechanisms required to carry out scientific and technological research and development activities and to transform the results of those activities into economic and social benefit.” However, until today, this goal has not been fully achieved and the innovation performance remained below the desired level. Although innovation performance is low, demand for innovative products/services, one of the prime drivers of innovation, is very high in Turkey. Departing from this paradox, this chapter discusses how to increase the innovative capabilities of the Turkish firms in favor of a competitive economy.


Gross Domestic Product Venture Capital Innovation Performance Knowledge Creation Innovation Policy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lale Gumusluoglu
    • 1
  • Şirin Elçi
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Business AdministrationBilkent UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Technopolis Group Turkey CyberparkCyberplazaAnkaraTurkey

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