Promoting Social and Emotional Development in Childhood and Early Adolescence

  • Maurice J. Elias
  • Jennifer S. Gordon
Part of the Issues in Children’s and Families’ Lives book series (IICL, volume 10)

When the end-of-the-day school bell rings, many children across the country return to empty homes, whereas other children congregate with their peers to engage in unsupervised activities. Today, more than 7 million children in the United States are without adult supervision for some period of time after school (Weisman & Gottfredson, 2001). This knowledge has triggered a body of research on the risks and benefits of after-school activities and led to the development of after-school programming for school-age children (ages 5–11 years) and adolescents’ (ages 12–18 years) (Mahoney, Harris, & Eccles, 2006).

The expansion of after-school programs has dramatically increased over the past few years, largely as a response to an increase of local, state, and federal expenditures to support organized activities. One additional factor responsible for prompting after-school programming includes the historic rise in maternal employment, which resulted in a gap between children’s daily school...


Emotional Development Index Card School Bonding Achievement Test Score Early Elementary School 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyRutgers UniversityLivingston CampusUSA

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