Routine Use of Influenza Vaccine

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 634)


Influenza Virus Respiratory Syncytial Virus Otitis Medium Influenza Vaccine Influenza Vaccination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; Smith NM, Bresee JS, Shay DK, Uyeki TM, Cox NJ, Strikas RA. Prevention and Control of Influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 2006; 55(RR-10): 1–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beard F, McIntyre P, Gidding H, et al. Influenza-related hospitalisations in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Arch Dis Child 2006; 91: 20–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belshe RB, Edwards KM, Vesikari T, et al. Live attenuated versus inactivated influenza vaccine in infants and young children. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 685–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belshe RB, Gruber WC. Prevention of otitis media in children with live attenuated influenza vaccine given intranasally. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000; 19(5 Suppl): S66–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Belshe RB, Gruber WC. Safety, efficacy and effectiveness of cold-adapted, live, attenuated, trivalent, intranasal influenza vaccine in adults and children. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001; 356: 1947–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergen R, Black S, Shinefield H, et al. Safety of cold-adapted live attenuated influenza vaccine in a large cohort of children and adolescents. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004; 23: 138–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhalla P, Tan A, Smyth R. Vaccines for preventing influenza in people with cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2000, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001753. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001753.Google Scholar
  8. Bhat N, Wright JG, Broder KR, et al. Influenza-associated deaths among children in the United States, 2003–2004. N Engl J Med 2003; 353: 2559–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bueving HJ, Bernsen RM, de Jongste JC, et al. Influenza vaccination in children with asthma: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004; 169: 488–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bueving HJ, van der Wouden JC, Berger MY, Thomas S. Incidence of influenza and associated illness in children aged 0–19 years: a systematic review. Rev Med Virol 2005; 15: 383–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bulut Y, Guven M, Otlu B, et al. Acute otitis media and respiratory viruses. Eur J Pediatr 2006 Sep 12.Google Scholar
  12. Cates CJ, Jefferson TO, Bara AI, Rowe BH. Vaccines for preventing influenza in people with asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD000364. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000364.pub2.Google Scholar
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Childhood influenza vaccination coverage--United States, 2004–05 influenza season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006; 55: 1062–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Severe morbidity and mortality associated with influenza in children and young adults-Michigan, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003; 52: 837–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chiu SS, Lau YL, Chan KH, et al. Influenza-related hospitalizations among children in Hong Kong. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 2097–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clements DA, Langdon L, Bland C, Walter E. Influenza A vaccine decreases the incidence of otitis media in 6- to 30-month-old children in day care. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1995; 149: 1113–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Daley MF, Crane LA, Chandramouli V, et al. Influenza among healthy young children: changes in parental attitudes and predictors of immunization during the 2003 to 2004 influenza season. Pediatrics 2006; 117: e268–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Englund JA, Walter EB, Fairchok MP, Monto AS, Neuzil KM. A comparison of 2 influenza vaccine schedules in 6- to 23-month-old children. Pediatrics 2005; 115: 1039–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fleming DM, Crovari P, Wahn U, et al. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of live attenuated cold-adapted influenza vaccine, trivalent, with trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine in children and adolescents with asthma. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006; 25: 860–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frank AL, Taber LH, Glezen WP, et al. Influenza B virus infections in the community and the family: the epidemics of 1976–77 and 1979–80 in Houston, Texas. Am J Epidemiol 1983; 118: 313–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Grijalva CG, Craig AS, Dupont WD, et al. Estimating influenza hospitalizations among children. EID 2006; 12: 103–9.Google Scholar
  22. Groothuis JR, Levin MJ, Rabalais GP, Meiklejohn G, Lauer BA. Immunization of high-risk infants younger than 18 months with split product influenza vaccine. Pediatrics 1991; 87: 823–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hall CE, Cooney MK, Fox JP. The Seattle Virus Watch: IV. Comparative epidemiologic observations of infections with influenza A and B viruses, 1965–69, in families with young children. Am J Epidemiol 1973; 98: 365–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hall JL, Katz BZ. Cost of influenza hospitalization at a tertiary care children's hospital and its impact on the cost-benefit analysis of the recommendation for universal influenza immunization in children age 6 to 23 months. J Pediatr 2005; 147: 807–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heikkinen T, Thint M, Chonmaitree T. Prevalence of various respiratory viruses in the middle ear during acute otitis media. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 260–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hoberman A, Greenberg DP, Paradise JL, et al. Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing acute otitis media in young children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003; 290: 1608–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Iwane MK, Edwards KM, Szilagyi PG, et al. Population-based surveillance for hospitalizations associated with respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, and parainfluenza viruses among young children. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 1758–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Izurieta HS, Thompson WW, Kramarz P, et al. Influenza and the rates of hospitalization for respiratory disease among infants and young children. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 232–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jefferson T. Influenza vaccination: policy versus evidence. BMJ 2006; 333: 912–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jordan R, Connock M, Albon E, Fry-Smith A, Olowokure B, Hawker J, Burls A. Universal vaccination of children against influenza: are there indirect benefits to the community? A systematic review of the evidence. Vaccine 2006; 24: 1047–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kanra G, Marchisio P, Feiterna-Sperling C, et al. Comparison of immunogenicity and tolerability of a virosome-adjuvanted and a split influenza vaccine in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004; 23: 300–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. King JC Jr, Fast PE, Zangwill KM, et al. Safety, vaccine virus shedding and immunogenicity of trivalent, cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccine administered to human immunodeficiency virus-infected and noninfected children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001; 20: 1124–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kumagai T, Nagai K, Okui T, et al. Poor immune responses to influenza vaccination in infants. Vaccine 2004; 22: 3404–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Luce BR, Zangwill KM, Palmer CS, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of an intranasal influenza vaccine for the prevention of influenza in healthy children. Pediatrics 2001; 108: E24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ma KK, Schaffner W, Colmenares C, Howser J, Jones J, Poehling KA. Influenza vaccinations of young children increased with media coverage in 2003. Pediatrics 2006; 117: e157–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marchisio P, Cavagna R, Maspes B, et al. Efficacy of intranasal virosomal influenza vaccine in the preventio of recurrent acute otitis media in children. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35: 168–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Monto AS, Kioumehr F. The Tecumseh study of respiratory illness IX. Occurrence of influenza in the community, 1966–71. Am J Epidemiol 1975; 102: 553–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Negri E, Colombo C, Giordano L, Groth N, Apolone G, La Vecchia C. Influenza vaccine in healthy children: a meta-analysis. Vaccine 2005; 23: 2851–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Neuzil KM, Jackson LA, Nelson J, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of 1 versus 2 doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in vaccine-naive 5-8-year-old children. J Infect Dis 2006; 194: 1032–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Neuzil KM, Mellen BG, Wright PF, et al. The effect of influenza on hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and courses of antibiotics in children. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 225–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Neuzil KM, Zhu Y, Griffin MR, et al. Burden of interpandemic influenza in children younger than 5 years: a 25-year prospective study. J Infect Dis 2002; 185: 147–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nguyen-Van-Tam JS. Influenza related hospital admissions in children: evidence about the burden keeps growing but the route to policy change remains uncertain. Arch Dis Child 2006; 91: 5–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nicholson KG, Wood JM, Zambon M. Influenza. Lancet 2003; 362: 1733–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nokso-Koivisto J, Raty R, Blomqvist S, et al. Presence of specific viruses in the middle ear fluids and respiratory secretions of young children with acute otitis media. J Med Virol 2004; 72: 241–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. O’Brien MA, Uyeki TM, Shay DK, et al. Incidence of outpatient visits and hospitalizations related to influenza in infants and young children. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 585–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Office of Technology Assessment. Cost effectiveness of influenza vaccination. In: U.S. Congress. Washington, DC: Office of Technology Assessment; 1981.Google Scholar
  47. Ozgur SK, Beyazova U, Kemaloglu YK, et al. Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine for prevention of otitis media in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006; 25: 401–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Peltola V, Ziegler T, Ruuskanen O. Influenza A and B virus infections in children. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36: 299–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Piedra PA, Gaglani MJ, Riggs M, et al. Live attenuated influenza vaccine, trivalent, is safe in healthy children 18 months to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 18 years of age in a community-based, nonrandomized, open-label trial. Pediatrics. 2005; 116: e397–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Piedra PA, Glezen WP, Mbawuike I, et al. Studies on reactogenicity and immunogenicity of attenuated bivalent cold recombinant influenza type A (CRA) and inactivated trivalent influenza virus (TI) vaccines in infants and young children. Vaccine 1993; 11: 718–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pisu M, Meltzer MI, Hurwitz ES, Haber M. Household-based costs and benefits of vaccinating healthy children in day care against influenza virus: results from a pilot study. Pharmacoeconomics 2005; 23: 55–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Poehling KA, Edwards KM, Weinberg GA, et al. The underrecognized burden of influenza in young children. N Engl J Med. 2006; 355: 31–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Raty R, Ziegler T, Kleemola M. The value of virus serology in epidemiological studies of acute otitis media in children. J Clin Virol 2004; 29: 315–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Reichert TA, Sugaya N, Fedson DS, Glezen WP, Simonsen L, Tashiro M. The Japanese experience with vaccinating schoolchildren against influenza. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 889–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ritzwoller DP, Bridges CB, Shetterly S, Yamasaki K, Kolczak M, France EK. Effectiveness of the 2003–2004 influenza vaccine among children 6 months to 8 years of age, with 1 vs 2 doses. Pediatrics 2005; 116: 153–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Salo H, Kilpi T, Sintonen H, Linna M, Peltola V, Heikkinen T. Cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination of healthy children. Vaccine 2006; 24: 4934–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Skowronski DM, Woolcott JC, Tweed SA, Brunham RC, Marra F. Potential cost-effectiveness of annual influenza immunization for infants and toddlers: experience from Canada. Vaccine 2006; 24: 4222–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Smith S, Demicheli V, Di Pietrantonj C, Harnden AR, Jefferson T, Matheson NJ, Rivetti A. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD004879. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004879.pub2.Google Scholar
  59. Tasker SA, Treanor JJ, Paxton WB, Wallace MR. Efficacy of influenza vaccination in HIV-infected persons. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131: 430–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Thompson WW, Shay DK, Weintraub E, et al. Influenza-associated hospitalizations in the United States. JAMA 2004; 292: 1333–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vesikari T, Fleming DM, Aristegui JF, et al. Safety, efficacy, and effectiveness of cold-adapted influenza vaccine-trivalent against community-acquired, culture-confirmed influenza in young children attending day care. Pediatrics. 2006; 118: 2298–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Weycker D, Edelsberg J, M.E. Halloran ME, et al. Population-wide benefits of routine vaccination of children against influenza. Vaccine 2005; 23: 1284–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. White T, Lavoie S, Nettleman MD. Potential cost savings attributable to influenza vaccination of school-aged children. Pediatrics 1999; 103: e73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zangwill KM, Droge J, Mendelman P, et al. Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of three lots of intranasal trivalent influenza vaccine among young children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001; 20: 740–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Professor, Department of Infectious DiseasesChildren’s HospitalWestmeadAustralia

Personalised recommendations