Global Epidemiology of Pneumococcal Disease—New Prospects for Vaccine Control

  • Vinicius C. Antao
  • William P. Hausdorff
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 634)

Overview of the Pneumococcus and Pneumococcal Disease

Streptococcus pneumoniae, or ‘the pneumococcus’, is a Gram positive, encapsulated diplococcus. Based on differences in the composition of its polysaccharide capsule, about 90 serotypes are identified. However, the majority of pneumococcal disease in infants is associated with a small number of these serotypes, which may vary by region. Globally, about 20 serotypes are associated with >80% of invasive pneumococcal disease occurring in all age groups, and only 10–12 serogroups (representing 12–14 serotypes) are responsible for the vast majority of pediatric invasive and mucosal acute otitis media (AOM) disease worldwide (WHO, 2007; Hausdorff et al., 2008).

Pneumococcus is an exclusively human pathogen, usually carried harmlessly and often asymptomatically in the nasopharynx, especially by children. Transmission occurs by direct contact with respiratory secretions or inhalation of respiratory aerosols from carriers or from individuals...


Acute Otitis Medium Conjugate Vaccine Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Pneumococcal Disease Pneumococcal Vaccine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

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