Childhood Intra-thoracic Tuberculosis

  • Ben J. Marais
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 634)


Tuberculosis (TB) has affected human kind for a very long time; archeological findings describe suggestive spinal changes in Neolithic man and conclusive evidence of tuberculous bone lesions have been found in mummified remains from Egypt, dating back to 3400 BC (Keers, 1978; Rubin, 1995). Hippocrates (460–377 BC) introduced the ancient Greek term for TB, phthisis, which became better known as consumption in the English world (Keers, 1978; Rubin, 1995). Although TB is an ancient disease it remains a major public health challenge. In fact, fuelled by poverty and rapid urbanization in developing countries, together with immune compromise resulting from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and emerging drug resistance, TB affects and kills more people today than ever before. The gravity of the situation is demonstrated by the fact that the TB epidemic continues to escalate, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the declaration of a global TB emergency by the World...


Tuberculin Skin Test Constrictive Pericarditis Positive Tuberculin Skin Test Hilar Adenopathy Tuberculous Empyema 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I want to thank the childhood TB research team at the Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa, where most of the ideas presented here were developed. Also to the journals that permitted reproduction of previously published figures and images, including The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Annals of Tropical Paediatrics and Pediatric Radiology.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Paediatrics and Child HealthFaculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch UniversitySouth Africa

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