The Significance of Serotype Replacement for Pneumococcal Disease and Antibiotic Resistance

  • Keith P. Klugman
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 634)


Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of death in children and the leading infectious cause of death in adults (WHO, 2005). There are in excess of 4 million deaths a year due to pneumonia and this estimate is conservative as it excludes HIV-associated deaths (WHO, 2005). Of these deaths, nearly two million are in children and the largest fraction of these deaths is vaccine preventable and caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. There has been remarkable progress in the roll-out of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in developed countries, but the cost of the vaccine has proven to be a considerable barrier to getting it to children at highest risk of death in developing countries. Two randomized trials in Africa have demonstrated the efficacy of a nine – valent conjugate to prevent pneumonia in HIV-uninfected (Klugman, Madhi et al., 2003; Cutts, Zaman et al., 2005) and HIV-infected children (Madhi, Kuwanda et al., 2005), as well as a 16% reduction in all-cause...


Otitis Medium Conjugate Vaccine Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Pneumococcal Disease Herd Immunity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hubert Department of Global HealthRollins School of Public Health, and Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA

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