Calcium ion signaling in astrocytes
Ca2+signaling has been recognized as one of the major second messenger steps in most cell types, including astrocytes, the major macroglial cell type in vertebrate nervous systems. Astrocytes are by no means a homogeneous group of glial cells, but comprise a number of different cell types (see Chap. 1). However, in contrast to a decade ago, when mammalian astrocytes were divided into either protoplasmic type 1 or fibrous type II astrocytes, we assume today that there are many types of astrocytes in different brain regions. Another classification has recognized astrocytes with a dense distribution of glutamate uptake transporters (EAAT, excitatory amino acid transporter) and poor equipment of ionotropic glutamate receptors, while another type of astrocytes shows a poor expression of EAATs, but prominent distribution of ionotropic glutamate receptors. As with all of these cell type classifications established so far, there are known exemptions, such as the Bergmann...
KeywordsGlial Cell Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor Metabotropic Receptor Store Depletion CRAC Channel
Ca2+ influx factor
Ca2+ release-activated channel
Excitatory amino acid transporter
Ca2+-independent phopholipase A2
Sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase
Soluble N-ethyl maleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor
Store-operated Ca2+ entry
Stromal interaction molecule 1
Vesicular glutamate transporter
Our studies on this topic have been supported by grants from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 530, GRK 845), which we gratefully acknowledge.
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