Energy and Amino Acid Neurotransmitter Metabolism in Astrocytes

  • Helle S. Waagepetersen
  • Ursula Sonnewald
  • Arne Schousboe


Glutamine Synthetase Malic Enzyme Pyruvate Carboxylase Glycogen Phosphorylase Cerebellar Granule Neuron 



Aspartate aminotransferase




Adenosine monophosphate


Adenosine 5′-triphosphate


Branched chain amino acid


Electron microscopy


Gamma-aminobutyric acid


Glutamate dehydrogenase


Glucose transporter


Glycogen phosphorylase


Glutamine synthetase


Lactate dehydrogenase


Malate–aspartate shuttle


Malic enzyme


Magnetic resonance spectroscopy


β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide


Phosphate activated glutaminase


Pyruvate carboxylase




Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase


Tricarboxylic acid



The expert secretarial assistance of Ms Hanne Danø is highly appreciated. The experimental work has been supported by grants from the Lundbeck, Hørslev, Novo Nordisk and Benzon Foundations as well as the Danish Medical Research Council (22-03-0250 and 22-04-0314).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helle S. Waagepetersen
  • Ursula Sonnewald
  • Arne Schousboe

There are no affiliations available

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