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Neurotransmitter Receptors in Astrocytes

  • Alexei Verkhratsky
Chapter

Astrocytes are the most numerous glial cells. They fulfill a wide variety of vital functions, being in essence the wardens and governors of brain homeostasis. Astrocytes are integrated into a syncytium, being thus able to exchange molecules, and produce long-range signaling in a form of propagating Ca2+ waves. Astroglial cells are potentially capable to express virtually all types of neurotransmitter receptors known so far. These receptors can be activated by synaptically released neurotransmitters, by “glio” transmitters or by molecules diffusing in the brain extracellular space (volume transmitters). This chapter provides a concise summary of the properties of the main types of neurotransmitter receptors operative in astroglial cells.

3.1 Introduction

The nervous system is built by two cellular circuits represented by synaptically connected neuronal network and a complex web of glial cells (Retzius, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894, 1895, 1896, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904...

Keywords

NMDA Receptor GABAA Receptor P2X7 Receptor AMPA Receptor Neurotransmitter Receptor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AMPA

IJ-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid

ARs

Adrenergic receptors

ATP

Adenosine 5′-triphosphate

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

ChR

Acetylcholine receptor

CNS

Central nervous system

D-AP-5

d-2-amino-phosphonopentanoic acid

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

GABA

γ-aminobutyric acid

GluR

Glutamate receptor

IP3

1,4,5-inositol-trisphosphate

KA

Kainate

mChR

Muscarinic ChR

mGluR

Metabotropic glutamate receptors

nChR

Nicotinic ChR

NMDA

N-methyl-d-aspartate

PLC

Phospholipase C

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

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  • Alexei Verkhratsky

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