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The Impact of Astrocyte Mitochondrial Metabolism on Neuroprotection During Aging

  • Lora T. Watts
  • James D. Lechleiter
Chapter

23.1 Introduction

Accumulation of oxidative damage as the result of normal mitochondrial metabolism is widely considered to be a fundamental cause of aging. A central tenet of this theory is that mitochondria themselves become dysfunctional. In the central nervous system (CNS), the focus of research on aging has primarily revolved around changes in and effects of neuronal mitochondrial metabolism. However, there is increasing interest in the role that astrocyte mitochondria play in the aging process. Little is known about the cumulative effects of aging on astrocyte mitochondria or on energy-dependent processes within astrocytes. It is likely that diminished astrocyte function throughout the aging process is a prominent determinant of both neuronal survival as well as survival of the entire organism. In this chapter, we focus our discussion on the impact of astrocyte mitochondrial metabolism during the aging process. We present a brief review of astrocyte bioenergetics followed by a...

Keywords

Purinergic Receptor Mitochondrial Metabolism Astrocyte Culture Mitochondrial Energy Production TMRE Fluorescence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

1S,3R-ACPD

1-Aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid

2-MeSADP

2-Methylthio adenosine 5-diphosphate

ΔΨ

Mitochondrial membrane potential

γ-glu-cys

γ-Glutamyl cysteine

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

CCLm

Modulatory subunit of GCL

CNS

Central nervous system

Cys-gly

Cysteinylglycine

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

Fcyto

Lowest value of fluorescence in the cytosol

Fmito

Peak fluorescent intensity observed in single mitochondrial

GCL

Glutamate cysteine ligase

GCLc

Catalytic subunit of GCL

GFAP

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

Gpx

Glutathione peroxidase

GS

Glutathione synthetase

GSH

Glutathione

IP3

Inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate

IP3-BM

Membrane permeant butyryloxymethyl ester of IP3

IP3R

IP3 receptor

mGluR

Metabotropic glutamate receptor

MRP1

Multidrug resistance protein type 1

NMDA

N-methyl-d-aspartic acid

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

PC12

Pheochromocytoma PC12 cell

PLCβ

Phospholipase C beta

Ru360

Ruthenium 360

SERCA

Sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase

t-BuOOH

tert-Butyl hydrogen peroxide

TCA

Tricarboxylic acid

TMRE

Tetramethyl rhodamine ethyl ester

XeC

Xestospongin C

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cellular and Structural BiologyUniversity of Texas Health Science Center at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA

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