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Role of Ion Channels and Amino-Acid Transporters in the Biology of Astrocytic Tumors

  • H Sontheimer
Chapter

The malignant transformation of central nervous system (CNS) glial cells gives rise to tumors that are collectively called gliomas. Although the vast majority of these cancers are believed to be of astrocytic origin, the actual cell of origin remains unknown. While gliomas present with many of the same genetic alterations in tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes that are common amongst cancers, their biology differs quite significantly from that of other neoplasms. Importantly, their growth is limited by the size of the skull, and hence tumor expansion can only occur when normal brain is destroyed. Recent research suggests that gliomas accomplish this by releasing glutamate at concentrations that cause excitotoxic neuronal cell death. Peritumoral glutamate may also contribute to seizures, which are a common comorbidity in patients with malignant glioma. Another differentiating feature of gliomas is their unusual ability to spread by diffusely invading normal brain tissue rather than...

Keywords

Glioma Cell Malignant Glioma Glutamate Release Glioma Cell Invasion Culture Glioma Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AMPAR

α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors

AQP

Aquaporins

BK

Channels big conductance Ca2+-activated

Cltx

Chlorotoxin

CNS

Central nervous system

EAAT

Excitatory amino acid transporter

GLAST

l-glutamate/l-aspartate transporter

GLT-1

Glial l-glutamate transporter

GSH

Glutathione

MMP2

Matrix metalloproteinase II

NMDA

N-methyl-d-aspartate

NMDAR

NMDA receptors

NPPB

5-Nitro-2-(3-phenyl-propylamino)benzoic acid

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author is grateful for the continued support by grants from the National Institutes of Health RO1 NS-31234, RO1 NS-52634, RO1 NS-36692, and P50-CA97247.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurobiology and Center for Glial Biology in MedicineThe University of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

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