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Release of Trophic Factors and Immune Molecules from Astrocytes

  • Ying Y. Jean
  • Issa P. Bagayogo
  • Cheryl F. Dreyfus
Chapter
It is now quite clear that as part of their support role, astrocytes produce and release multiple proteins that impact survival, migration, differentiation, and function of proximate neurons. This astrocyte role is particularly evident during development, remains in play in the normal adult brain, and is enhanced after injury. The molecules produced include those known traditionally as cytokines, chemokines, and trophic factors. Importantly, these proteins can serve as trophic or toxic agents and may be differentially regulated by the signals impacting on astrocytes at various stages of brain development and maturity (Fig. 13.1). The story of proteins produced by astrocytes, then, is a complex one. Multiple trophic or toxic molecules may be produced. The molecular mix may change from the developing animal to the adult, and after a lesion. Moreover, there is regional heterogeneity in the astrocyte-derived molecules, suggesting that those produced by region-specific astrocytes may be...

Keywords

Nerve Growth Factor Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein BDNF mRNA Cortical Astrocyte Immune Molecule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ACM

Astrocyte-conditioned media

AMPA

α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid

BDNF

Brain-derived neurtrophic factor

CNTF

Ciliary neurotrophic factor

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

GDNF

Glial cell line-derived growth factor

GFAP

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

IFN

Interferon

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

IGFBP

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein

IL

Interleukin

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

LTP

Long-term potentiation

mGluR

Metabotropic glutamate receptor

NGF

Nerve growth factor

NT

Neurotrophin

TGF

Transforming growth factor

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

TSP

Thrombospondin

VIP

Vasoactive intestinal peptide

Notes

Acknowledgment

The work referred to in this review that was performed in the Dreyfus lab was supported by NIH HD23315.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ying Y. Jean
    • 1
  • Issa P. Bagayogo
  • Cheryl F. Dreyfus
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neuroscience and Cell BiologyUMDNJ-Robert Wood Medical School, PiscatawayNJUSA

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