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Mechanisms of transmitter release from astrocytes

  • Erik B. Malarkey
  • Vladimir Parpura
Chapter

Astrocytes and other glial cells can release a variety of neuroligands into the extracellular space using many different mechanisms. In this chapter we shall chiefly discuss the different chemical transmitters that astrocytes have been shown to release and examine the mechanisms by which these cells release the transmitters. In limited cases we shall expand our discussion on this subject to other astrocyte-related cells, such as Müller cells, pituicytes, as well as cell lines, including tumorigenic astrocytomas and gliomas. We shall focus on transmitters released from astrocytes, apart from eicosatetraenoids (briefly discussed in Chap. 18), growth factors and hormones (see Chap. 13). Transmitters can be released by astrocytes through several different mechanisms (1) through channels like anion channel openings induced by cell swelling (Pasantes Morales and Schousboe, 1988), release through functional unpaired connexons, hemichannels, on the cell surface (Cotrina et al., 1998) and...

Keywords

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator P2X7 Receptor Glutamate Release Anion Channel Transmitter Release 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ABC

ATP-binding cassette

AMPA

a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole propionate

ASCT

alanine-serine-cysteine transporter

ATP

adenosine 5′-triphosphate

BAPTA

1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid

BBG

Brilliant Blue G

BzATP

3′-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl ATP

cAMP

adenosine 3′:5′ cyclic monophosphate

CFTR

cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

cGMP

guanosine 3′:5′ cyclic monophosphate

Cm

plasma membrane capacitance

Cx

connexin

DIDS

4,4′-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2′-disulfonate

EGFP

enhanced green fluorescent protein

EM

electron microscopy

ENT

equilibrative nucleoside transporters

EPSC

excitatory post synaptic current

FFA

flufenamic acid

GA

18b-glycyrrhetinic acid

GABA

g-amino butyric acid

GAD

glutamic acid decarboxylase

GAT

plasma membrane GABA transporter

GlyT

plasma membrane glycine transporters

HCA

homocysteic acid

MRP

multidrug resistance protein

NKCC

Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporters

NMDA

N-methyl-d-aspartic acid

oATP

oxidized ATP

PPADS

pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2-4-disulfonic acid

SNARE

soluble N-ethyl maleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor

SOC

slow outward current

TCA

tricarboxylic acid

UDP

uridine diphosphate-glucose

UTP

uridine 5′-triphosphate

V-ATPase

vacuolar type proton ATPase

VGAT

vesicular GABA transporter

VGLUT

vesicular glutamate transporter

VRAC

volume-regulated anion channels

VSOR

volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors’ work is supported by a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (R01 MH 069791). We thank Drs. Eliana Scemes and David C. Spray for comments on the previous versions of this manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik B. Malarkey
    • 1
  • Vladimir Parpura
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurobiology, Center for Glial Biology in Medicine, Civitan International Research Center, Atomic Force Microscopy & Nanotechnology Laboratories, Evelyn F. McKnight Brain InstituteUniversity of AlabamaBirminghamUSA

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