Virus Resistance

  • Margaret G. Redinbaugh
  • Richard C. Pratt

Abstract

Identification, characterization and deployment of virus resistant maize are complex tasks requiring multidisciplinary approaches. Insect transmission of viruses in nature and the potential presence of biologically distinct virus strains complicate screening for virus resistance. At least ten maize-infecting viruses cause damage worldwide, and naturally occurring resistance to each of these viruses has been identified in maize. Genes and quantitative trait loci for resistance to most of these viruses have been mapped in the maize genome, and regions on chromosomes 1, 3, 6 and 10 have been implicated in resistance to multiple phylogenetically unrelated viruses. Mechanisms associated with virus resistance and alternatives to naturally occurring virus resistance are discussed.

References

  1. Bai, F.W., Yan, J., Qu, Z.C., Zhang, H.W., Xu, J., Ye, M.M. and Shen, D.L. (2002) Phylogenetic analysis reveals that a dwarfing disease on different cereal crops in China is due to rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). Virus Genes 25: 201–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrow, M.R. (1992) Development of maize hybrids resistant to maize streak virus. Crop Prot. 11: 267–271.Google Scholar
  3. Bosque-Pérez, N.A. (2000) Eight decades of Maize streak virus research. Virus Res. 71: 107–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brewbaker, J.L. and Josue, A.D. (2007) Registration of 27 maize parental inbred lines resistant to maize mosaic virus. Crop Sci. 47: 459–461.Google Scholar
  5. Brewbaker, J.L., Kim, S.K. and Logrono, M.L. (1991) Resistance of tropical maize inbreds to major virus and virus-like diseases. Maydica 36: 257–265.Google Scholar
  6. Bustamante, P.I., Hammond, R. and Ramirez, P. (1998) Evaluation of maize germplasm for resistance to maize rayado fino virus. Plant Dis. 82: 50–56.Google Scholar
  7. Chen, J., Chen, J. and Adams, M.J. (2002) Characterisation of potyviruses from sugarcane and maize in China. Arch. Virol. 147: 1237–1246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chisholm, S.T., Mahajan, S.K., Whitham, S.A., Yamamoto, M.L. and Carrington, J.C. (2000) Cloning of the Arabidopsis RTM1 gene, which controls restriction of long-distance movement of tobacco etch virus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 489–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chisholm, S.T., Parra, M.A., Anderberg, R.J. and Carrington, J.C. (2001) Arabidopsis RTM1 and RTM2 genes function in phloem to restrict long-distance movement of tobacco etch virus. Plant Physiol. 127: 1667–1675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Collins, N.C., Webb, C.A., Seah, S., Ellis, J.G., Hulbert, S.H. and Pryor, A. (1998). The isolation and mapping of disease resistance gene analogs in maize. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 11: 968–978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. DeVries, J. and Toenniessen, G. (2001) Securing the Harvest, Biotechnology, Breeding and Seed Systems for African crops. CABI, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Di Renzo, M.A., Bonamico, N.C., Diaz, D.G., Ibanez, M.A., Faricelli, M.E., Balzarini, M.G. and Salerno, J.C. (2004). Microsatellite markers linked to QTL for resistance to Mal de Rio Cuarto disease in Zea mays L. J. Agricultural Science 142: 289–295.Google Scholar
  13. Dintinger, J., Boissot, N., Chiroleu, F., Hamon, P. and Reynaud, B. (2005a) Evaluation of maize inbreds for Maize stripe virus and Maize mosaic virus resistance: disease progress in relation to time and the cumulative number of planthoppers. Phytopathology 95: 600–607.Google Scholar
  14. Dintinger, J., Verger, D., Caiveau, S., Risterucci, A.M., Gilles, J., Chiroleu, F., Courtois, B., Reynaud, B. and Hamon, P. (2005b) Genetic mapping of maize stripe disease resistance from the Mascarene source. Theor. Appl. Genet. 111: 347–359.Google Scholar
  15. Dussle, C.M., Melchinger, A.E., Kuntze, L., Stork, A. and Lubberstedt, T. (2000) Molecular mapping and gene action of Scm1 and Scm2, two major QTL contributing to SCMV resistance in maize. Plant Breed. 119: 299–303.Google Scholar
  16. Dussle, C.M., Quint, M., Melchinger, A.E., Xu, M.L. and Lubberstedt, T. (2003) Saturation of two chromosome regions conferring resistance to SCMV with SSR and AFLP markers by targeted BSA. Theor. Appl. Genet. 106: 485–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Duvick, D.N. and Cassman, K.G. (1999). Post-green revolution trends in yield potential of temperate maize in the north-central United States. Crop Science 39: 1622–1630.Google Scholar
  18. Efron, Y., Kim, S.K., Fajemisin, J.M., Mareck, J.H., Tang, C.Y., Dabrowski, Z.T., Rossel, H.W. and Thottappilly, G. (1989) Breeding for resistance to maize streak virus: a multidisciplinary approach. Plant Breed. 103: 1–36.Google Scholar
  19. Falk, B.W. and Tsai, J.H. (1998) Biology and molecular biology of viruses in the genus Tenuivirus. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 36: 139–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Fang, S., Yu, J., Feng, J., Han, C., Li, D. and Liu, Y. (2001) Identification of rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus in maize with rough dwarf disease in China. Arch. Virol. 146: 167–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Findley, W.R., Nault, L.R., Styer, W.E. and Gordon, D.T. (1982) Zea diploperennis as a source of maize chlorotic dwarf virus resistance: a progress report. In: Gordon, D.T., Knoke, J.K., Nault, L.R. and Ritter, R.M. (eds.) International Maize Virus Disease Colloquium and Workshop. The Ohio State University OARDC, Wooster, OH, pp. 255–257.Google Scholar
  22. Flis, B., Hermig, J., Strzelczyk-Zyta, D., Gebhardt, C. and Marezewski, W. (2005) The Ry- f(sto) gene from Solanum stoloniferum for extreme resistant to Potato virus Y maps to potato chromosome XII and is diagnosed by PCR marker GP122(718) in PVY resistant potato cultivars. Mol. Breed. 15: 95–101.Google Scholar
  23. Francl, L.J. (2001) The disease triangle: a plant pathological paradigm revisited. Plant Health Instructor DOI: 10.1094/PHI-T-2001-0517-01.Google Scholar
  24. Fritts, D.A., Michels, G.J. and Rush, C.M. (1999) The effects of planting date and insecticide treatments on the incidence of high plains disease in corn. Plant Dis. 83: 1125–1128.Google Scholar
  25. Garcia-Arenal, F. and McDonald, B.A. (2003) An analysis of the durability of resistance to plant viruses. Phytopathology 93: 941–952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldbach, R., Bucher, E. and Prins, M. (2003). Resistance mechanisms to plant viruses: an overview. Virus Research 92: 207–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gordon, D.T., Bradfute, O.E., Gingery, R.E., Knoke, J.K., Nault, L.R. and Scott, G.E. (1981) Introduction: history, geographical distribution, pathogen characteristics and economic importance. In: Gordon, D.T., Knoke, J.K., Scott, G.E. (eds.) Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Maize in the United States. The Ohio State University OARDC, Wooster, OH, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  28. Greber, R.S. (1981) Maize stripe disease in Australia. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 32: 27–36.Google Scholar
  29. Gregory, L.V., and Ayers, J.E. (1982). Influence of planting date on yield reduction due to Maize dwarf mosaic virus in sweet corn. Phytopathology 72: 257–257.Google Scholar
  30. Guthrie, W.D., Tseng, C.T., Knoke, J. and Jarvis, J.L. (1982) European corn-borer (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) and maize chlorotic dwarf virus resistance-susceptibility in inbred lines of dent maize. Maydica 27: 221–233.Google Scholar
  31. Hajjar, R. and Hodgkin, T. (2007) The use of wild relatives in crop improvement: a survey of developments over the last 20 years. Euphytica 156: 1–13.Google Scholar
  32. Harrison, B.D. (2002) Virus variation in relation to resistance-breaking in plants. Euphytica 124: 181–192.Google Scholar
  33. Heath, M.C. (2000) Hypersensitive response-related death. Plant Mol. Biol. 44: 321–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Heitefuss, R. (1997) General principles of host parasite interactions. In: Hartleb, H. (ed.) Resistance of Crop Plants to Fungi. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, Germany, pp. 19–32.Google Scholar
  35. Hulbert, S.H., Webb, C.A., Smith, S.M. and Sun, Q. (2001) Resistance gene complexes: evolution and utilization. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 39: 285–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hull, R. (2002) Matthew's Plant Virology. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  37. Itnyre, R.L.C., D'arcy, C.J., Pedersen, W.L. and Sweets, L.E. (1999) Reaction of sweet corn to inoculation with barley yellow dwarf virus RMV-IL. Plant Dis. 83: 566–568.Google Scholar
  38. Jackson, A.O., Dietzgen, R.G., Goodin, M.M., Bragg, J.N. and Deng, M. (2005) Biology of plant rhabdoviruses. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 43: 623–660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Jensen, S.G., Lane, L.C. and Seifers, D.L. (1996) A new disease of maize and wheat in the high plains. Plant Dis. 80: 1387–1390.Google Scholar
  40. Jiang, J.X. and Zhou, X.P. (2002) Maize dwarf mosaic disease in different regions of China is caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus. Arch. Virol. 147: 2437–2443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Jones, M.W., Pratt, R.C., Findley, W.R., St. Martin, S.A. and Guthrie, W.D. (1993) Multiple trait improvement in OhS3 using a “rank and replace” S1 recurrent selection method. Maydica 38: 283–290.Google Scholar
  42. Jones, M.W., Redinbaugh, M.G., Anderson, R.J. and Louie, R. (2004) Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling resistance to Maize chlorotic dwarf virus. Theor. Appl. Genet. 110: 48–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Jones, M.W., Redinbaugh, M.G. and Louie, R. (2007) The Mdm1 locus and maize resistance to Maize dwarf mosaic virus. Plant Dis. 91: 185–190.Google Scholar
  44. Jones, R.K. and Tolin, S.A. (1972) Concentration of maize dwarf mosaic virus in susceptible and resistant corn hybrids. Phytopathology 62: 640–644.Google Scholar
  45. Kachroo, A. (2006) Host-gene mediated virus resistance mechanisms and signaling in Arabidopsis. In: Lobenstein, G. and Carr, J.P. (eds.) Natural Resistance Mechanisms of Plants to Viruses. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 147–164.Google Scholar
  46. Kang, B.C., Yeam, I. and Jahn, M.M. (2005) Genetics of plant virus resistance. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 43: 581–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Konate, G. and Traore, O. (1994) Variability of the Maize streak virus (MSV) in the Sudano-Sahelian region. Phytoprotection 75: 91–99.Google Scholar
  48. Kong, P. and Steinbiss, H.H. (1998) Complete nucleotide sequence and analysis of the putative polyprotein of Maize dwarf mosaic virus genomic RNA (Bulgarian isolate). Arch. Virol. 143: 1791–1799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kovacs, G., Gaborjanyi, R., Vasdinyei, R. and Toldi, E. (1998) Resistance of maize inbred lines to maize dwarf mosaic and sugarcane mosaic potyviruses. Cereal Res. Commun. 26: 195–201.Google Scholar
  50. Kuntze, L., Fuchs, E., Gruntzig, M., Schulz, B., Klein, D. and Melchinger, A.E. (1997) Resistance of early-maturing European maize germplasm to Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV). Plant Breed. 116: 499–501.Google Scholar
  51. Kyetere, D.T., Ming, R., McMullen, M.D., Pratt, R.C., Brewbaker, J. and Musket, T. (1999) Genetic analysis of tolerance to maize streak virus in maize. Genome 42: 20–26.Google Scholar
  52. Law, M.D., Moyer, J.W. and Payne, G.A. (1989) Effect of host resistance on pathogenesis of maize dwarf mosaic virus. Phytopathology 79: 757–761.Google Scholar
  53. Lawrence, C.J., Schaeffer, M.L., Seigfried, T.E., Campbell, D.A. and Harper, L.C. (2007) MaizeGDB's new data types, resources and activities. Nucleic Acids Res. 35: D895–D900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lei, J.D. and Agrios, G.N. (1986) Mechanisms of resistance in corn to maize dwarf mosaic virus. Phytopathology 76: 1034–1040.Google Scholar
  55. Lenardon, S.L., March, G.J., Nome, S.F. and Ornaghi, J.A. (1998) Recent outbreak of “Mal de Rio Cuarto” virus on corn in Argentina. Plant Dis. 82: 448–448.Google Scholar
  56. Lindbo, J.A. and Dougherty, W.G. (2005) Plant pathology and RNAi: a brief history. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 43: 191–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Louie, R. (1985) Variations in maize inbred response to maize-dwarf mosaic-virus inoculation treatments. Phytopathology 75: 1354.Google Scholar
  58. Louie, R. (1986) Effects of genotype and inoculation protocols on resistance evaluation of maize to maize dwarf mosaic virus strains. Phytopathology 76: 769–773.Google Scholar
  59. Louie, R. (1995) Vascular puncture of maize kernels for the mechanical transmission of maize white line mosaic virus and other viruses of maize. Phytopathology 85: 139–143.Google Scholar
  60. Louie, R. (1999) Diseases caused by viruses. In: White, D.G. (ed.) Compendium of Corn Diseases. APS Press, St. Paul, pp. 49–55.Google Scholar
  61. Louie, R. and Anderson, R.J. (1993) Evaluation of Maize chlorotic dwarf virus resistance in maize with multiple inoculations by Graminella nigrifrons (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 86: 1579–1583.Google Scholar
  62. Louie, R., Knoke, J.K. and Findley, W.R. (1990) Elite maize germplasm: reactions to maize dwarf mosaic and maize chlorotic dwarf viruses. Crop Sci. 30: 1210–1215.Google Scholar
  63. Louie, R., Redinbaugh, M.G., Gordon, D.T., Abt, J.J. and Anderson, R.J. (2000) Maize necrotic streak virus, a new maize virus with similarity to species of the family Tombusviridae. Plant Dis. 84: 1133–1139.Google Scholar
  64. Louie, R., Jones, M.W., Anderson, R.A. and Redinbaugh, M.G. (2002) Notice of release of Oh1VI. Crop Sci. 42: 991.Google Scholar
  65. Lu, X.W., Brewbaker, J.L., Nourse, S.M., Moon, H.G., Kim, S.K. and Khairallah, M. (1999) Mapping of quantitative trait loci conferring resistance to maize streak virus. Maydica 44: 313–318.Google Scholar
  66. Lubberstedt, T., Ingvardsen, C., Melchinger, A.E., Xing, Y., Salomon, R. and Redinbaugh, M.G. (2006) Two chromosome segments confer multiple potyvirus resistance in maize. Plant Breed. 125: 352–356.Google Scholar
  67. Marçon, A., Kaeppler, S.M. and Jensen, S.G. (1997a) Resistance to systemic spread of high plains virus and wheat streak mosaic virus cosegregates in two F2 maize poplations inoculated with both pathogens. Crop Sci. 37: 1923–1927.Google Scholar
  68. Marçon, A., Kaeppler, S.M. and Jensen, S.G. (1997b) Genetic variability among maize inbred lines for resistance to the high plains virus-wheat streak mosaic virus complex. Plant Dis. 81: 195–198.Google Scholar
  69. Marçon, A., Kaeppler, S.M., Jensen, S.G., Senior, L. and Stuber, C. (1999) Loci controlling resistance to high plains virus and wheat streak mosaic virus in a B73 X Mo17 population of maize. Crop Sci. 39: 1171–1177.Google Scholar
  70. Martin, D.P., Willment, J.A. and Rybicki, E.P. (1999) Evaluation of Maize streak virus patho-genicity in differentially resistant Zea mays genotypes. Phytopathology 89: 695–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Marzachi, C., Boccardo, G., Milne, R., Isogai, M. and Uyeda, I. (1995) Genome structure and variability of fijiviruses. Sem. Virol. 6: 103–108.Google Scholar
  72. Mawere, S., Vincent, V., De Meyer, J. and Pixley, K.V. (2006) Resistance of four inbred maize lines to inoculation with 20 isolates of Maize streak virus from Zimbabwe. Plant Dis. 90: 1485–1489.Google Scholar
  73. McMullen, M.D. and Louie, R. (1989) The linkage of molecular markers to a gene controlling the symptom response in maize to Maize dwarf mosaic virus. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 2: 309–314.Google Scholar
  74. McMullen, M.D. and Louie, R. (1991) Identification of a gene for resistance to Wheat streak mosaic virus in maize. Phytopathology 81: 624–627.Google Scholar
  75. McMullen, M.D. and Simcox, K.D. (1995) Genomic organization of disease and insect resistance genes in maize. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 8: 811–815.Google Scholar
  76. McMullen, M.D., Jones, M.W., Simcox, K.D. and Louie, R. (1994) 3 genetic-loci control resistance to Wheat streak mosaic virus in the maize inbred Pa405. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 7: 708–712.Google Scholar
  77. Melchinger, A.E., Kuntze, L., Gumber, R.K., Lübberstedt, T. and Fuchs, E. (1998) Genetic basis of resistance to Sugarcane mosaic virus in European maize germplasm. Theor. Appl. Genet. 96: 1151–1161.Google Scholar
  78. Mesfin, T., Bosqueperez, N.A., Buddenhagen, I.W., Thottappilly, G. and Olojede, S.O. (1992) Studies of Maize streak virus isolates from grass and cereal hosts in Nigeria. Plant Dis. 76: 789–795.Google Scholar
  79. Mikel, M.A., Darcy, C.J., Rhodes, A.M. and Ford, R.E. (1984) Genetics of resistance of two dent corn inbreds to maize dwarf mosaic virus and transfer of resistance into sweet corn. Phytopathology 74: 467–473.Google Scholar
  80. Ming, R., Brewbaker, J.L., Pratt, R.C., Musket, T.A. and Mcmullen, M.D. (1997) Molecular mapping of a major gene conferring resistance to maize mosaic virus. Theor. Appl. Genet. 95: 271–275.Google Scholar
  81. Murry, L.E., Elliott, L.G., Capitant, S.A., West, J.A., Hanson, K.K., Scarafia, L., Johnston, S., Delucaflaherty, C., Nichols, S., Cunanan, D., Dietrich, P.S., Mettler, I.J., Dewald, S., Warnick, D.A., Rhodes, C., Sinibaldi, R.M. and Brunke, K.J. (1993) Transgenic corn plants expressing MDMV strain-B coat protein are resistant to mixed infections of maize-dwarf mosaic-virus and maize chlorotic mottle virus. Bio-Technology 11: 1559–1564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Nasser, W., De Tapia, M., Kauffmann, S., Montasser-Kouhsari, S. and Burkard, G. (1988) Identification and characterization of maize pathogenesis-related proteins. Four maize PR proteins are chitinases. Plant Mol. Biol. 11: 529–538.Google Scholar
  83. Nasser, W., De Tapia, M. and Burkard, G. (1990) Maize pathogenesis-related proteins–characterization and cellular-distribution of 1,3-b-glucanases and chitinases induced by brome mosaic virus infection or mercuric chloride treatment. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 36: 1–14.Google Scholar
  84. Nault, L.R., Gordon, D.T., Damsteegt, V.D. and Iltis, H.H. (1982) Response of annual and perennial teosintes ( Zea) to 6 maize viruses. Plant Dis. 66: 61–62.Google Scholar
  85. Nicaise, V., German-Retana, S., Sanjuan, R., Dubrana, M.P., Mazier, M., Maisonneuve, B., Candresse, T., Caranta, C. and Legall, O. (2003) The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E controls lettuce susceptibility to the potyvirus Lettuce mosaic virus. Plant Physiol. 132: 1272–1282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Pernet, A., Hoisington, D., Franco, J., Isnard, M., Jewell, D., Jiang, C., Marchand, J.-L., Reynaud, B., Glaszmann, J.-C. and De Léon, D.G. (1999a) Genetic mapping of maize streak virus resistance from the Mascarene source. I. Resistance in line D211 and stability against different virus clones. Theor. Appl. Genet. 99: 524–539.Google Scholar
  87. Pernet, A., Hoisington, D., Dintinger, J., Jewell, D., Jiang, C., Khairallah, M., Letourmy, P., Marchand, J.-L., Glaszmann, J.-C. and De Léon, D.G. (1999b) Genetic mapping of maize streak virus resistance from the Mascarene source. II. Resistance in line CIRAD390 and stablility across germplasm. Theor. Appl. Genet. 99: 540–553.Google Scholar
  88. Perring, T.M., Gruenhagen, N.M. and Farrar, C.A. (1999) Management of plant viral diseases through chemical control of insect vectors. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 44: 457–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Pilson, D. and Prendeville, H.R. (2004) Ecological effects of transgenic crops and the escape of transgenes into wild populations. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 35: 149–174.Google Scholar
  90. Pinner, M.S. and Markham, P.G. (1990) Serotyping and strain identification of Maize streak virus isolates. J. Gen. Virol. 71: 1635–1640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Pratt, R.C. and Gordon, S.G. (2006) Breeding for resistance to maize foliar pathogens. Plant Breed. Rev. 26: 119–173.Google Scholar
  92. Pratt, R.C., Anderson, R.J., Louie, R., Mcmullen, M.D. and Knoke, J.K. (1994) Maize responses to a severe isolate of Maize chlorotic dwarf virus. Crop Sci. 34: 635–641.Google Scholar
  93. Pratt, R.C., Gordon, S., Lipps, P. Asea, G., Bigirwa, G. and Pixley, K. (2003) Use of IPM in the control of multiple diseases of maize: strategies for selection of host resistance. Afr Crop Sci. J. 11: 189–198.Google Scholar
  94. Quint, M., Mihaljevic, R., Dussle, C.M., Xu, M.L., Melchinger, A.E. and Lubberstedt, T. (2002) Development of RGA-CAPS markers and genetic mapping of candidate genes for sugarcane mosaic virus resistance in maize. Theor. Appl. Genet. 105: 355–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Quint, M., Dussle, C.M., Melchinger, A.E. and Lubberstedt, T. (2003) Identification of genetically linked RGAs by BAC screening in maize and implications for gene cloning, mapping and MAS. Theor. Appl. Genet. 106: 1171–1177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Redinbaugh, M.G., Seifers, D.L., Abt, J.J., Anderson, R.J., Styer, W.E., Ackerman, J., Meulia, T., Salomon, R., Houghton, W., Creamer, R., Gordon, D.T. and Hogenhout, S.A. (2002) Maize fine streak virus, a new leafhopper-transmitted maize rhabdovirus. Phytopathology 92: 1167–1174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Redinbaugh, M.G., Jones, M.W. and Gingery, R.E. (2004) The genetics of virus resistance in maize ( Zea mays L.). Maydica 49: 183–190.Google Scholar
  98. Roossinck, M.J. (2003) Plant RNA virus evolution. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 6: 406–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Rosenkranz, E. and Scott, G.E. (1986) Mode of inheritance of resistance in corn to maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV). Phytopathology 76: 1095–1096.Google Scholar
  100. Rosenkranz, E. and Scott, G.E. (1987) Type of gene-action in the resistance to maize chlorotic dwarf virus in corn. Phytopathology 77: 1293–1296.Google Scholar
  101. Rufener, G.K., Balducchi, A.J., Mowers, R.P., Pratt, R.C., Louie, R., McMullen, M. and Knoke, J. (1996) Maize chlorotic dwarf virus resistant maize and the production thereof. USA Patent 5,563,316.Google Scholar
  102. Scott, G.E. (1983) Breed for and genetics of virus resistance in field corn. In: Gordon D.T., Knoke J.K. and Scott G.E. (eds) International Maize Virus Disease Colloquim and Workshop. The Ohio State University OARDC, Wooster, OH, pp. 248–254.Google Scholar
  103. Scott, G.E. and Louie, R. (1996) Improved resistance to maize dwarf mosaic virus by selection under greenhouse conditions. Crop Sci. 36: 1503–1506.Google Scholar
  104. Scott, G.E. and Rosenkranz, E. (1981) Effectiveness of resistance to maize dwarf mosaic and maize chlorotic dwarf viruses in maize. Phytopathology 71: 937–941.Google Scholar
  105. Shepherd, D.N., Mangwende, T., Martin, D.P., Bezuidenhout, M., Thomson, J.A. and Rybicki, E.P. (2007a) Inhibition of maize streak virus (MSV) replication by transient and transgenic expression of MSV replication-associated protein mutants. J. Gen. Virol. 88: 325–336.Google Scholar
  106. Shepherd, D.N., Mangwende, T., Martin, D.P., Bezuidenhout, M., Kloppers, F.J., Carolissen, C.H., Monjane, A.L., Rybicki, E.P. and Thomson, J.A. (2007b) Maize streak virus-resistant transgenic maize: a first for Africa. Plant Biotech. J. 5: 759–767.Google Scholar
  107. Shi, C., Thummler, F., Melchinger, A.E., Wenzel, G. and Lubberstedt, T. (2005a) Association between SCMV resistance and macroarray-based expression patterns in maize inbreds. Mol. Breed. 16: 173–184.Google Scholar
  108. Shi, C., Ingvardsen, C., Thummler, F., Melchinger, A.E., Wenzel, G. and Lubberstedt, T. (2005b) Identification by suppression subtractive hybridization of genes that are differentially expressed between near-isogenic maize lines in association with sugarcane mosaic virus resistance. Mol. Gen. Genomics 273: 450–461.Google Scholar
  109. Shi, C., Thummler, F., Melchinger, A.E., Wenzel, G. and Lubberstedt, T. (2006) Comparison of transcript profiles between near-isogenic maize lines in association with SCMV resistance based on unigene-microarrays. Plant Sci. 170: 159–169.Google Scholar
  110. Shulka, D.D., Wardand, C.W. and Brunt, A.A. (1994) The Potyviridae. CAB International, Oxon, UK.Google Scholar
  111. Simcox, K.D., McMullen, M.D. and Louie, R. (1995) Co-segregation of the maize dwarf mosaic virus resistance gene, Mdm1, with the nucleolus organizer region in maize. Theor. Appl. Genet. 90: 341–346.Google Scholar
  112. Skare, J.M., Wijkamp, I., Denham, I., Rezende, J.A.M., Kitajima, E.W., Park, J.W., Desvoyes, B., Rush, C.M., Michels, G., Scholthof, K.B.G. and Scholthof, H.B. (2006) A new eriophyid mite-borne membrane-enveloped virus-like complex isolated from plants. Virology 347: 343–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Stein, N., Perovic, D., Kumlehn, J., Pellio, B., Stracke, S., Streng, S., Ordon, F. and Graner, A. (2005) The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E confers multiallelic recessive Bymovirus resistance in Hordeum vulgare (L.). Plant J. 42: 912–922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Stenger, D.C., Hall, J.S., Choi, I.R. and French, R. (1998) Phylogenetic relationships within the family Potyviridae: Wheat streak mosaic virus and Brome streak mosaic virus are not members of the genus Rymovirus. Phytopathology 88: 782–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Strange, R.N. and Scott, P.R. (2005) Plant disease: a threat to global food security. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 43: 83–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Thottappilly, G., Bosqueperez, N.A. and Rossel, H.W. (1993) Viruses and virus diseases of maize in tropical africa. Plant Pathol. 42: 494–509.Google Scholar
  117. Vangessel, M. J., and Coble, H. D. (1993). Postemergence control of johnsongrass and its effect on Maize dwarf mosaic virus incieence and vectors in corn. Plant Disease 77: 613–618.Google Scholar
  118. Valdez, M., Madriz, K. and Ramirez, P. (2004) A method for genetic transformation of maize for resistance to viral diseases. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52: 787–793.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Vasquez, J. and Mora, E. (2007) Incidence of and yield loss caused by maize rayado fino virus in maize cultivars in Ecuador. Euphytica 153: 339–342.Google Scholar
  120. Wang, F., Zhang, Y.S., Zhuang, Y.L., Qin, G.Z. and Zhang, J.R. (2007) Molecular mapping of three loci conferring resistance to maize ( Zea mays L.) rough dwarf disease. Mol. Plant Breed. 5: 178–179.Google Scholar
  121. Waterworth, H.E. and Hadidi, A. (1998) Economic losses due to plant viruses. In: Hadidi, A., Khetarpal, R.K. and Koganezawa, H. (eds) Plant Virus Disease Control. APS Press, St. Paul, pp. 1–13.Google Scholar
  122. Welz, H.G., Schechert, A., Pernet, A., Pixley, K.V. and Geiger, H.H. (1998) A gene for resistance to the maize streak virus in the African CIMMYT maize inbred line CML202. Mol. Breed. 4: 147–154.Google Scholar
  123. Whitham, S.A., Anderberg, R.J., Chisholm, S.T. and Carrington, J.C. (2000) Arabidopsis RTM2 gene is necessary for specific restriction of tobacco etch virus and encodes an unusual small heat shock-like protein. Plant Cell 12: 569–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Xia, X.C., Melchinger, A.E., Kuntze, L. and Lübberstedt, T. (1999) Quantitative trait loci mapping of resistance to Sugarcane mosaic virus in maize. Phytopathology 89: 660–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Xiao, W.K., Xu, M.L., Zhao, J.R., Wang, F.G., Li, J.S. and Dai, J.R. (2006) Genome-wide isolation of resistance gene analogs in maize ( Zea mays L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 113: 63–72.Google Scholar
  126. Xiao, W.K., Zhao, J., Fan, S.G., Li, L., Dai, J.R. and Xu, M.L. (2007) Mapping of genome-wide resistance gene analogs (RGAs) in maize ( Zea mays L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 115: 501–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Xu, M.L., Melchinger, A.E., Xia, X.C. and Lübberstedt, T. (1999) High-resolution mapping of loci conferring resistance to Sugarcane mosaic virus in maize using RFLP, SSR, and AFLP markers. Mol. Gen. Genet. 261: 574–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Xu, M.L., Melchinger, A.E. and Lübberstedt, T. (2000) Origin of Scm1 and Scm2–two loci conferring resistance to Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) in maize. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100: 934–941.Google Scholar
  129. Yuan, L., Dussle, C.M., Melchinger, A.E., Utz, H.F. and Lubberstedt, T. (2003) Clustering of QTL conferring SCMV resistance in maize. Maydica 48: 55–62.Google Scholar
  130. Zuber, M.S. 1973. Registration of 20 maize parental lines. Crop Sci 13: 779–780.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret G. Redinbaugh
  • Richard C. Pratt

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations