Electro-Osmotic Dewatering (EOD) of Bio-Materials

  • Arun S. MujumdarEmail author
  • Hiroshi Yoshida
Part of the Food Engineering Series book series (FSES)


In practical application of electro-osmotic dewatering (EOD), it is very important to increase the dewatering rate, and to decrease the final water content and the electric power consumption for water removal. In a batch apparatus for dewatering operation of colloidal suspensions or sludges, electric power applications, such as alternating current (AC) electric field and interrupted or intermittent electric field, and also arrangements and configurations of the electrode in contact with the suspension or sludge can be available for improving the performance of electro-osmotic dewatering. The effects of these electric field applications and the electrode arrangements and configurations on the dewatering processes are shown, and the usage of electro-osmotic dewatering is focused to biomaterials such as sewage/activated sludge, waterworks sludge, food processing products and wastes, and biomass sludge.


Sewage Sludge Alternate Current Water Removal Electric Power Consumption Specific Electric Conductivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Al-Asheh, S, Jumah, R., Banat, F. and Al-Zou'Bi, K. (2004) Direct current electro-osmosis dewatering of tomato paste suspension. Food and Bioproducts Processing. 82(C3), 193–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barton, W. A., Miller, S. A. and Veal, C. J. (1999) The electro-dewatering of sewage sludges. Drying Technology. 17(3), 497–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen, H., Mujumdar, A. S. and Raghavan, G. S. V. (1996) Laboratory experiments on electro-osmotic dewatering of vegetable sludge and mine tailings. Drying Technology. 14(10), 2435–2445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gray, D. H. and Somogyi, F. (1977) Electro-osmotic dewatering with polarity reversals. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division. 103(1), 51–54.Google Scholar
  5. Gopalakrishnan, S., Mujumdar, A. S. and Weber, M. E. (1996a) Optimal off-time in interrupted electro-osmotic dewatering. Separations Technology. 6(3), 197–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gopalakrishnan, S., Mujumdar, A. S., Weber, M. E. and Pirkonen, P. M. (1996b) Electro-kinetically enhanced vacuum dewatering of mineral slurries. Filtration & Separation. Nov/Dec, 33, 929–932.Google Scholar
  7. Hansen, H. K., Kristensen, I. V., Ottosen, L. M. and Villumsen, A. (2003) Electro-osmotic dewatering of porous materials-experiences with chalk, iron hydroxide and biomass sludges, and wet fly ash. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan. 36(6), 689–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ho, M. Y. and Chen, G. (2001) Enhanced electro-osmotic dewatering of fine particle suspension using a rotating anode. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. 40(8), 1859–1863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Isobe, S., Uemura, K. and Noguchi, A. (1996) Dewatering of soybean residue “okara" by electro-osmosis and screw press, Proceedings of The Second International Soybean Processing and Utilization Conference. Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 523–527.Google Scholar
  10. Iwata, M. (2000) Final moisture distribution in materials after electro-osmotic dewatering. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan. 33(2), 308–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Iwata, M., Igami, H., Murase, T. and Yoshida, H. (1991a) Analysis of electro-osmotic dewatering. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan. 24(1), 45–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Iwata, M., Igami, H., Murase, T. and Yoshida, H. (1991b) Combined operation of electro-osmotic dewatering and mechanical expression. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan. 24(3), 399–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Iwata, M., Sato, M. and Nagase, H. (2004) Analysis of constant-electric electro-osmotic dewatering. Kagaku Kogaku Ronbunshu. 30(5), 626–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jumah, R, Al-Asheh, S, Banat, F. and Al-Zoubi, K. (2005) Electro-osmotic dewatering of tomato paste suspension under AC electric field. Drying Technology. 23(7), 1465–1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kondoh, S. and Hiraoka, M. (1990) Commercialization of pressurized electro-osmotic dehydrator (PED). Water Science and Technology. 22(12), 259–268.Google Scholar
  16. Li, L., Li, X., Uemura, K. and Tatsumi, E. (1999) Electro-osmotic dewatering of okara in different electric fields. Proceedings of The 99-th International Conference on Agricultural Engineering. Beijing, China, pp. IV58–IV63.Google Scholar
  17. Li, X., Nanayama, K, Uemura, K, Sakabe, H. and Isobe, S. (2002) Production of tofu sheet by electro-osmosis combined with mechanical compression. Proceedings of The Third Annual Meeting of The Society of Food Engineers, Japan. Tokyo, Japan. OF-5, p. 75.Google Scholar
  18. Lightfoot, D. G. and Raghavan, G. S. V. (1994) Combined fields dewatering of seaweed (nereocystis luetkeana). Transactions of the ASAE. 37(3), 899–906.Google Scholar
  19. Lightfoot, D. G. and Raghavan, G. S. V. (1995) Combined fields dewatering of seaweed with a roller press. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 11(2), 291–295.Google Scholar
  20. Lockhart, N. C. (1986) Electro-dewatering of fine suspensions. In: H. S. Muralidhara (Ed.), Advances in solid-liquid separation. Battelle Press, Columbus, pp. 241–274.Google Scholar
  21. Lockhart, N. C. (1992) Combined field dewatering: bridging the science-industry gap. Drying Technology. 10(4), 839–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lockhart, N. C. and Hart, G. H. (1988) Electro-osmotic dewatering of fine suspensions: the efficacy of current interruptions. Drying Technology. 6(3), 415–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Orsat, V., Raghavan, G. S. V. and Norris, E. R. (1996) Food processing waste dewatered by electro-osmosis. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 38(1), 1–5.Google Scholar
  24. Orsat, V., Raghavan, G. S. V., Sotocinal, S., Lightfoot, D. G. and Gopalakrishnan, S. (1999) Roller press for electro-osmotic dewatering of bio-materials. Drying Technology. 17(3), 523–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rabie, H. R., Mujumdar, A. S. and Weber, M. E. (1994) Interrupted electro-osmotic dewatering of clay suspensions. Separations Technology. 4, 38–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rampacek, C. (1966) Electro-osmotic and electro-phoretic dewatering as applied to solid-liquid separation. In: J. B. Poole and D. Doyle (Eds.), Solid-liquid separation-a review and a bibliography-. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. London, pp. 100–108.Google Scholar
  27. Reddy, K. R., Urbanek, A. and Khodadoust, A. P. (2005) Electro-osmotic dewatering of dredged sediments; bench-scale investigation. Journal of Environmental Management. 78(2), 200–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shaplro, A. P. and Probstein, R. F. (1993) Removal of contaminants from saturated clay by electro-osmosis. Environmental Science & Technology. 27(2), 283–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Saveyn, H., Curvers, D., Pel, L., DeBondt, P. and Van der Meeren, P. (2006) In situ determination of solidosity profiles during activated sludge electro-dewatering. Water Research. 40(11), 2135–2142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Saveyn, H., Huybregts, L. and Van der Meeren, P. (2001) Enhanced sludge dewatering by electro-filtration; a feasibility study. Meded Rijksuniv Gent Fak Landbouwkd Toegep Biol Wet. 66(3a), 71–78.Google Scholar
  31. Saveyn, H., Pauwels, G., Timmerman, R. and Van der Meeren, P. (2005) Effect of polyelectrolyte conditioning on the enhanced dewatering of activated sludge by application of an electric field during the expression phase. Water Research. 39(13), 3012–3020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shirato, M., Murase, T., Kato, H. and Fukaya, S. (1967) Studies on expression of slurries under constant pressure. Kagaku Kogaku. 31(11), 1125–1131.Google Scholar
  33. Smollen, M. and Kafaar, A. (1994) Electro-osmotically enhanced sludge dewatering; pilot-plant study. Water Science and Technology. 30(8), 159–168.Google Scholar
  34. Suzuki, Y., Konno, M., Sato, Y. and Shishido, I. (1990) Development of continuous dehydrator for fish meat by electro-osmotic method. Kagaku Kogaku Ronbunshu. 16 (6), 1133–1137.Google Scholar
  35. Vijh, A. K. (1999a) The significance of current observed during combined field and pressure electro-osmotic dewatering of clays. Drying Technology. 17(3), 555–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vijh, A. K. (1999b) Salient experimental observations on the electro-osmotic dewatering (EOD) of clays and sludges and their interpretation. Drying Technology. 17(3), 575–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vijh, A. K. (1999c) Electrochemical treatment of tumors (ECT): Electro-osmotic dewatering (EOD) as the primary mechanism. Drying Technology. 17(3), 585–596.Google Scholar
  38. Vijh, A. K. (2002) Electro-osmotic dewatering by a “new" method using a “gate" electrode; field effect transistor (FET) model or simply a multistage dewatering? Drying Technology. 20(3), 705–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vijh, A. K. (2004) Electro-chemical effects in biological materials: electro-osmotic dewatering of cancerous tissue as the mechanistic proposal for the electro-chemical treatment of tumors. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. 10(7), 419–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wakeman, R. J. and Tarleton, E. S.(1999) Filtration -equipment selection modelling and process simulation. Elsevier Advanced Technology. Oxford, pp. 244–246.Google Scholar
  41. Xia, B., Sun, D.-W., Li, L.-T., Li, X.-Q. and Tatsumi, E. (2003) Effect of electro-osmotic dewatering on the quality of tofu sheet. Drying Technology. 21(1), 129–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yamada, K., Hobo, Y., Hayashi, N., Uchida, E. and Watanabe, S. (2001) Achieving increased efficiency in a solid-liquid separation process using electro-osmosis. Proceedings of Filtration and Separation Symposium '01. Tokyo, Japan, pp. 161–164.Google Scholar
  43. Yamaguchi, M., Arai, T. and Matsusita, H. (1986) Dewatering of Wastewater and sewage sludges by an electro-osmotic dewatering system. Yosui To Haisui (Water and Waste). 28(4), 36–41.Google Scholar
  44. Yoshida, H. (1993) Practical Aspects of Dewatering Enhanced by Electro-Osmosis. Drying Technology. 11(4), 787–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yoshida, H. (2000) Electro-osmotic dewatering under intermittent power application by rectification of a.c. electric field. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan. 33(1), 134–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yoshida, H. (2001) Effect of intermittently applied electric field on electro-kinetic dewatering of slurry in a cross-flow continuous type dewatering apparatus. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan. 34(6), 840–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yoshida, H., Fujimoto, T. and Hishamudi Hassan, H. (2004) Electro-osmotic dewatering under electric fields with combination of constant voltage and constant current. Kagaku Kogaku Ronbunshu. 30(5), 633–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yoshida, H., Kitajyo, K., and Nakayama, M. (1999) Electro-osmotic dewatering under a.c. electric field with periodic reversals of electrode polarity. Drying Technology. 17(3), 539–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yoshida, H. and Okada, M. (2006) Influence of electric field application with decreasing one sided area of electrodes in electro-osmotic dewatering. Drying Technology. 24, 1313–1316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Yoshida, H., Tanaka, K. and Komatsu, M. (2001) Influence of on and off times of power application on electro-osmotic dewatering under intermittent electric field. The Transactions of Filtration Society. 2(1), 27–32.Google Scholar
  51. Yoshida, H. and Yukawa, H. (1991) Analysis of dewatering processes enhanced by electro-osmosis. Fluid/Particle Separation Journal. 4(1), 1–7.Google Scholar
  52. Yoshida, H. and Yukawa, H. (1992) Analysis of electro-osmotically enhanced sludge dewatering. In: A. S. Mujumdar (Ed.), Advances in drying, vol.5. Hemisphere, Bristol, pp. 301–323.Google Scholar
  53. Yukawa, H., Hakoda, M., Okonogi, H. and Yoshida, H. (1986) Electro-osmotic dewatering of wasted activated sludge. Yosui To Haisui (Water and Waste). 28(6), 30–35.Google Scholar
  54. Zhou, J., Liu, Z., She, P. and Ding, F (2001) Water removal from sludge in a horizontal electric field. Drying Technology. 19(3&4), 627–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National University of Singapore, Mineral, Metal & Materials Technology CentreEngineering Science ProgrammeSingapore
  2. 2.Department of Materials Chemistry and BioengineeringOyama National College of TechnologyOyama

Personalised recommendations