Pulsed-Electric-Fields-Induced Effects in Plant Tissues: Fundamental Aspects and Perspectives of Applications

Part of the Food Engineering Series book series (FSES)


The purpose of this contribution is to review the existing approaches to pulsed electric field (PEF) application as a tool for enhancing the processing of plant tissues. The PEF-treatment as a nonthermal method, which allows to preserve the natural quality, color, and vitamin constituents of food products. The numerous laboratory attempts to modernize the optimal PEF application protocols still lack universality. The problem is inherently multidisciplinary and integrates different biological, electrophysical, and chemical processes. The fundamental aspects of electroporation in application to plant tissues, electrically induced damage, optimal power consumption, synergetic effect of combined PEF-thermal treatment, and influence of pulse protocol parameters are presented and critically discussed. The experimental data on PEF-induced acceleration in expression, diffusion, and drying processes are also analyzed.


Sugar Beet Pulse Electric Field Osmotic Dehydration Ohmic Heating Juice Yield 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank the ‘Pole Regional Genie des Procedes’ (Picardie, France) for providing the financial support. Authors also thank Dr. N.S. Pivovarova for her help with preparation of the manuscript.


  1. Abram, F., Smelt, J.P.P.M., Bos, R. and Wouters, P.C. (2003) Modelling and optimization of inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum by pulsed electric field treatment. Journal of Applied Microbiology 94, 571–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ade-Amowaye, B.I., Angersbach, A., Taiwo, K.A. and Knorr, D. (2001) Use of pulsed electric field pre-treatment to improve dehydration characteristics of plant based foods. Trends in Food Science and Technology 12(8), 285–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ade-Amowaye, B.I., Rastogi, N.K., Angersbach, A. and Knorr, D. (2002) Osmotic dehydration of bell peppers: influence of high intensity electric field pulses and elevated temperature treatment. Journal of Food Engineering 54, 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ade-Omowaye, B.I., Rastogi, N.K., Angersbach, A. and Knorr, D. (2003) Combined effects of pulsed electric field pre-treatment and partial osmotic dehydration on air drying behaviour of red bell pepper. Journal of Food Engineering 60(1), 89–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agarwal, A., Zudans, I., Weber, E. A., Olofsson, J., Orwar, O. and Weber, S. G. (2007) Effect of cell size and shape on single-cell electroporation. Analytical Chemistry 79(10), 3589–3596.Google Scholar
  6. Aguilera, J.M., Chiralt, A. and Fito, P. (2003) Food dehydration and product structure. Trends in Food Science and Technology 14(10), 432–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Albagnac, G., Varoquaux, P. and Montigaux, J.-C. (2002) Technologies de transformation des fruits. Lavoisier, Paris.Google Scholar
  8. Amami, E., Vorobiev, E. and Kechaou, N. (2006) Modelling of mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of apple tissue pre-treated by pulsed electric field. LWT- Food Science and Technology 39(9), 1014–1021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Amami, E., Fersi, A., Khezami, L., Vorobiev, E. and Kechaou, N. (2007a). Centrifugal osmotic dehydration and rehydration of carrot tissue pre-treated by pulsed electric field. LWT – Food Science and Technology 40(7), 1156–1166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Amami, E., Fersi, A., Vorobiev, E. and Kechaou, N. (2007b). Osmotic dehydration of carrot tissue enhanced by pulsed electric field, salt and centrifugal force. Journal of Food Engineering, 83(4), 605–613.Google Scholar
  11. Angersbach, A., Heinz, V. and Knorr, D. (2000) Effects of pulsed electric fields on cell membranes in real food systems. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 1(2), 135–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Angersbach, A., Heinz, V. and Knorr, D. (2002) Evaluation of process-induced dimensional changes in the membrane structure of biological cells using impedance measurement. Biotechnology Progress 18(3), 597–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Archie, G.E. (1942) The electrical resistivity log as an aid in determining some reservoir characteristics. Transactions on AIME 146:54–62.Google Scholar
  14. Aronsson, K., Lindgren, M., Johansson, B.R. and Rönner, U. (2001) Inactivation of microorganisms using pulsed electric fields: the influence of process parameters on Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 2, 41–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bajgai, T.R. and Hashinaga, F. (2001) High electric field drying of Japanese radish. Drying Technology 19(9), 2291–2302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barbosa-Canovas, G. and Vega-Mercado, H. (1996) Dehydration of foods. Chapman & Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Barsotti, L. and Cheftel, J.C. (1998) Traitement des aliments par champs electriques pulses. Science des Aliments 18, 584–601.Google Scholar
  18. Bazhal, M. and Vorobiev, E. (2000) Electrical treatment of apple cossettes for intensifying juice pressing. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80, 1668–1674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bazhal, M. (2001) Etude du mécanisme d'électropermeabilisation des tissus végétaux. Application à l'extraction du jus des pommes. PhD thesis, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France.Google Scholar
  20. Bazhal, M.I., Lebovka, N.I. and Vorobiev, E.I. (2001) Pulsed electric field treatment of apple tissue during compression for juice extraction. Journal of Food Engineering 50, 129–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bazhal, M.I., Lebovka, N.I. and Vorobiev, E. (2003) Optimisation of pulsed electric field strength for electroplasmolysis of vegetable tissues. Biosystems Engineering 86, 339–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Beaudry, C., Raghavan, G.S.V. and Rennie, T.J. (2003) Microwave finish drying of osmotically dehydrated cranberries. Drying Technology 21(9), 1797–1810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bernhardt, J. and Pauly, H. (1973) On the generation of potential differences across the membranes of ellipsoidal cells in an alternating electrical field. Biophysik 10, 89–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bouzrara, H. and Vorobiev, E. (2000) Beet juice extraction by pressing and pulsed electric fields. International Sugar Journal CII 1216, 194–200.Google Scholar
  25. Bouzrara, H. (2001) Amélioration du pressage de produits végétaux par Champ Electrique Pulsé. Cas de la betterave à sucre. PhD thesis, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France.Google Scholar
  26. Bouzrara, H. and Vorobiev, E. (2001) Non-thermal pressing and washing of fresh sugarbeet cossettes combined with a pulsed electrical field. Zucker 126, 463–466.Google Scholar
  27. Bouzrara, H. and Vorobiev, E. (2003) Solid/liquid expression of cellular materials enhanced by pulsed electric field. Chemical Engineering and Processing 42, 249–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Canatella, P.J., Karr J.F., Petros, J.A. and Prausnitz, M.R. (2001) Quantitative study of electroporation mediated uptake and cell viability. Biophysical Journal 80, 755–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Canatella, P.J., Black, M.M., Bonnichsen, D.M., McKenna, C. and Prausnitz, M.R. (2004) Tissue electroporation: quantification and analysis of heterogeneous transport in multicellular environments. Biophysical Journal 86, 3260–3268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cao, W., Nishiyama, Y., Koide, S. and Lu, Z.H. (2004) Drying enhancement of rough rice by an electric field. Biosystems Engineering 87(4), 445–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chang, D.C. (1989) Cell poration and cell fusion using an oscillating electric field. Biophysical Journal 56, 641–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chalermchatand, Y. and Dejmek, P. (2005) Effect of pulsed electric field pretreatment on solid–liquid expression from potato tissue. Journal of Food Engineering 71, 164–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chen, C., Smye, S.W., Robinson, M.P. and Evans, J.A. (2006) Membrane electroporation theories: a review. Medical Biology Engineering Computing 44(1/2), 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chou, S.K. and Chua, K.J. (2001) New hybrid drying technologies for heat sensitive foodstuffs. Trends in Food Science and Technology 12, 359–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chua, K.J., Chou, S.K., Mujumdar, A.S., Ho, J.C. and Hon, C.K. (2004) Radiant-convective drying of osmotic treated agro-products: effect on drying kinetics and product quality. Food Control 15(2), 145–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Corrales, M., Toepfl, S., Butz, P., Knorr D. and Tauscher, B. (2008). Extraction of anthocyanins from grape by-products assisted by ultrasonic, high hydrostatic pressure or pulsed electric fields: a comparison. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 9(1), 85–91.Google Scholar
  37. Crank, J. (1975). The mathematics of diffusion. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  38. De Vito, F., Ferrari, G., Lebovka, N.I., Shynkaryk, N.V. and Vorobiev, E. (2008) Pulse duration and efficiency of soft cellular tissue disintegration by pulsed electric fields. Food Bioprocess Technology, In Press.Google Scholar
  39. Dimitrov, D.S. and Sowers, A.E. (1990) Membrane electroporation – fast molecular exchange by electroosmosis. Biochimica et biophysica acta 1022, 381–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. El-Belghiti, K. and Vorobiev, E. (2004) Mass transfer of sugar from beets enhanced by pulsed electric field. Food and Bioproducts Processing 82(c3), 226–230.Google Scholar
  41. El-Belghiti, K. (2005) Effets d'un champ électrique pulsé sur le transfert de matière et sur les caractéristiques végétales. PhD thesis, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France.Google Scholar
  42. El-Belghiti, K., Rabhi, Z. and Vorobiev, E. (2005) Effect of the centrifugal force on the aqueous extraction of solute from sugar beet tissue pretreated by a pulsed electric field. Journal of Food Process Engineering 28, 346–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. El-Belghiti, K. and Vorobiev, E. (2005a) Kinetic model of sugar diffusion from sugar beet tissue treated by pulsed electric field. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 85, 213–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. El-Belghiti, K. and Vorobiev, E. (2005b) Modelling of solute aqueous extraction from carrots subjected to a pulsed electric field pre-treatment. Biosystems Engineering 90(3), 289–294.Google Scholar
  45. El-Belghiti, K., Moubarik, A. and Vorobiev, E. (2008) Aqueous extraction of solutes from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Assisted by pulsed electric field. Journal of Food Process Engineering, In Press.Google Scholar
  46. El Zakhem, H., Lanoisellé, J.-L., Lebovka, N.I., Nonus, M. and Vorobiev, E. (2006a) Behavior of yeast cells in aqueous suspension affected by pulsed electric field. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 300(2), 553–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. El Zakhem, H., Lanoisellé, J.-L., Lebovka, N.I., Nonus, M. and Vorobiev, E. (2006b) The early stages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast suspensions damage in moderate pulsed electric fields. Colloids and Surfaces B47(2), 189–197.Google Scholar
  48. Eshtiaghi, M.N. and Knorr, D. (1999) Method for treating sugar beet, International Patent Nr WO 99/6434Google Scholar
  49. Evrendilek, G.A. and Zhang, Q.H. (2005) Effects of pulse polarity and pulse delaying time on pulsed electric fields-induced pasteurization of E. coli O157:H7. Journal of Food Engineering 68(2), 271–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Exerova, D. and Nikolova, A. (1992) Phase transitions in phospholipid foam bilayers. Langmuir 8(12), 3102–3108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fincan, M. and Dejmek, P. (2002) In situ visualization of the effect of a pulsed electric field on plant tissue. Journal of Food Engineering 55, 223–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fincan, M., DeVito, F. and Dejmek, P. (2004) Pulsed electric field treatment for solid–liquid extraction of red beetroot pigment. Journal of Food Engineering 64(3), 381–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Flaumenbaum, B.L. (1949) Electrical treatment of fruits and vegetables before extraction of juice. Trudy OTIKP 3, 15–20 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  54. Fricke, H. (1953) The electric permittivity of a dilute suspension of membrane-covered ellipsoids. Journal of Applied Physics 24, 644–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gimsa, J. and Wachner, D. (2001) Analytical description of the transmembrane voltage induced on arbitrarily oriented ellipsoidal and cylindrical cells. Biophysical Journal 81, 1888–1896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Grimi, N., Praporscic, I., Lebovka, N. and Vorobiev, E. (2007) Selective extraction from carrot slices by pressing and washing enhanced by pulsed electric fields. Separation and Purification Technology, 58(2), 267–273.Google Scholar
  57. Gulyi, I.S., Lebovka, N.I., Mank, V.V., Kupchik, M.P., Bazhal, M.I., Matvienko, A.B. and Papchenko, A.Y. (1994) Scientific and practical principles of electrical treatment of food products and materials. UkrINTEI, Kiev (in Russian).Google Scholar
  58. Ho, S.Y. and Mittal, G.S. (1996) Electroporation of cell membranes: a review. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 16, 349–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jemai, A.B. and Vorobiev, E. (2001) Enhancement of the diffusion characteristics of apple slices due to moderate electric field pulses (MEFP). In: J. Welti-Chanes, G.V. Barbosa-Canovas and J.M. Aguilera (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Congress on Engineering and Food. Technomic Publishing Co., Pennsylvania, USA, pp. 1504–1508.Google Scholar
  60. Jemai, A.B. and Vorobiev, E. (2002) Effect of moderate electric field pulse (MEFP) on the diffusion coefficient of soluble substances from apple slices. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 37, 73–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jemai, A.B. and Vorobiev, E. (2003) Enhancing leaching from sugar beet cossettes by pulsed electric field. Journal of Food Engineering 59, 405–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jemai, A.B. and Vorobiev E. (2006) Pulsed electric field assisted pressing of sugar beet slices: towards a novel process of cold juice extraction. Biosystems Engineering 93(1), 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Katrokha, I.M. and Kupchik, M.P. (1984) Intensification of sugar extraction from sugar-beet cossettes in an electric field. Sakharnaya Promyshlennost 7, 28–31 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  64. Knorr, D., Angersbach, A., Eshtiaghi, M.N., Heinz, V. and Lee D.-U. (2001) Processing concepts based on high intensity electric field pulses. Trends in Food Science and Technology 12(3–4), 129–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kogan, F.I. (1968) Electrophysical methods in canning technologies of foodstuff. Tehnika, Kiev (in Russian).Google Scholar
  66. Kotnik, T., Miklavcic, D. and Slivnik, T. (1998) Time course of transmembrane voltage induced by time-varying electric fields: a method for theoretical analysis and its application. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 45, 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kotnik, T. and Miklavcic D. (2000) Analytical description of transmembrane voltage induced by electric fields on spheroidal cells. Biophysical Journal 79, 670–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Krassowska, W. and Filev, P.D. (2007) Modeling electroporation in a single cell. Biophysical Journal 92, 404–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Landau, L.D., Lifshitz, E.M. and Pitaevskii, L.P. (1984) Electrodynamics of continuous media. Pergamon, New York.Google Scholar
  70. Lebedeva, N.E. (1987) Electric breakdown of bilayer lipid membranes at short times of voltage effect. Biological Membranes 4, 994–998 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  71. Lebovka, N.I., Bazhal, M.I. and Vorobiev, E. (2000a) Simulation and experimental investigation of food material breakage using pulsed electric field treatment. Journal of Food Engineering 44, 213–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lebovka, N.I., Melnyk, R.M. and Kupchik, M.P., Bazhal, M.I. and Serebrjakov, R.A., (2000b) Local generation of ohmic heat on cellular membranes during the electrical treatment of biological tissues. Scientific Papers of Kiev Mogyla Academy 18, 51–56.Google Scholar
  73. Lebovka, N.I., Bazhal, M.I. and Vorobiev, E. (2001) Pulsed electric field breakage of cellular tissues: visualization of percolative properties. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 2, 113–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lebovka, N.I., Bazhal, M.I. and Vorobiev, E. (2002) Estimation of characteristic damage time of food materials in pulsed-electric fields. Journal of Food Engineering 54, 337–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lebovka, N.I., Praporscic, I. and Vorobiev, E. (2003) Enhanced expression of juice from soft vegetable tissues by pulsed electric fields: consolidation stages analysis. Journal of Food Engineering 59, 309–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lebovka, N.I., Praporscic, I. and Vorobiev, E. (2004a) Combined treatment of apples by pulsed electric fields and by heating at moderate temperature. Journal of Food Engineering 65, 211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lebovka, N.I., Praporscic, I. and Vorobiev, E. (2004b) Effect of moderate thermal and pulsed electric field treatments on textural properties of carrots, potatoes and apples. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 5, 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lebovka, N.I. and Vorobiev, E. (2004) On the origin of the deviation from the first-order kinetics in inactivation of microbial cells by pulsed electric fields. International Journal of Food Microbiology 91, 83–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lebovka, N.I., Praporscic, I., Ghnimi, S. and Vorobiev, E. (2005a) Temperature enhanced electroporation under the pulsed electric field treatment of food tissue. Journal of Food Engineering 69(2), 177–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lebovka, N.I., Praporscic, I., Ghnimi, S. and Vorobiev, E. (2005b) Does electroporation occur during the ohmic heating of food. Journal of Food Science 70(5), 308–311.Google Scholar
  81. Lebovka, N.I., Shynkaryk, M.V. and Vorobiev, E., (2006) Drying of potato tissue pretreated by ohmic heating. Drying Technology 24, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lebovka, N.I., Shynkaryk, M.V., El-Belghiti, K., Benjelloun, H. and Vorobiev, E. (2007a) Plasmolysis of sugarbeet: pulsed electric fields and thermal treatment. Journal of Food Engineering 80(2), 639–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lebovka, N.I., Shynkaryk, N.V. and Vorobiev, E. (2007b) Pulsed electric field enhanced drying of potato tissue. Journal of Food Engineering, 78(2), 606–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lebovka, N.I. and Vorobiev, E. (2007) The kinetics of inactivation of spheroidal microbial cells by pulsed electric fields. E-print arXiv:0704.2750v1, 1–22.Google Scholar
  85. Li, F.-D., Li, L.-T., Sun, J.-F. and Tatsumi, E. (2005) Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying characteristic of okara cake. Drying Technology 23, 565–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lysjanskii (1973). The extraction process of sugar from sugarbeet: theory and calculations (Process ekstractzii sahara iz svekly: teorija I raschet). Pischevaja Promyshlennost, Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  87. Mañas, P., Barsotti, L. and Cheftel, J.C. (2000) Microbial inactivation by pulsed electric fields in a batch treatment chamber: effects of some electrical parameters and food constituents. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 2, 239–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Marchal, L., Muravetchi, V., Vorobiev, E., Bonhoure, J.P. (2004). Recovery of inulin from Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers: development of a pressing method assisted by pulsed electric field. International Congress on Engineering and Food, Montpellier, 7–11 mars, CD-Rom, (6 p).Google Scholar
  89. Martín-Belloso, O., Vega-Mercado, H., Qin, B.L., Chang, F.J., Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V. and Swanson, B.G. (1997) Inactivation of Escherichia coli suspended in liquid egg using pulsed electric fields. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 21, 193–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Matov, B. I. and Reshetko, E.V. (1968) Electrophysical methods in food industry. Kartja Moldavenjaske, Kishinev (in Russian).Google Scholar
  91. May, B.K. and Perré, P. (2002) The importance of considering exchange surface area reduction to exhibit a constant drying flux period in foodstuffs. Journal of Food Engineering 54(4), 271–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mouritsen, O.G. and Jørgensen, K. (1997) Small-scale lipid-membrane structure: simulation versus experiment. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 7, 518–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pavlin, M., Leben, V. and Miklavcic, D. (2007) Electroporation in dense cell suspension. Theoretical and experimental analysis of ion diffusion and cell permeabilization. BBA 1770(1), 12–23.Google Scholar
  94. Pauly, H. and Schwan, H.P. (1959) Uber die Impedanz einer Suspension von kugelformigen Teilchen mit einer Schale. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B14, 125–131.Google Scholar
  95. Pliquett, U., Joshi, R.P., Sridhara, V. and Schoenbach, K.H. (2007) High electrical field effects on cell membranes. Bioelectrochemistry 70(2), 275–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Praporscic, I. (2005) Influence du traitement combiné par champ électrique pulsé et chauffage modéré sur les propriétés physiques et sur le comportement au pressage de produits végétaux. PhD thesis, UTC, Compiègne, France.Google Scholar
  97. Praporscic, I., Ghnimi, S. and Vorobiev, E. (2005) Enhancement of pressing sugar beet cuts by combined ohmic heating and pulsed electric field treatment. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 29(5–6), 378–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Praporscic, I.V., Lebovka, N., Ghnimi, S. and Vorobiev, E. (2006) Ohmically heated, enhanced expression of juice from apple and potato tissues. Biosystems Engineering 93(2), 199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Praporscic, I., Lebovka, N.I., Vorobiev, E. and Mietton-Peuchot, M. (2007a) Pulsed electric field enhanced expression and juice quality of white grapes. Separation and Purification Technology 52(3), 520–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Praporscic, I., Shynkaryk, M., Lebovka, N. and Vorobiev, E. (2007b) Analysis of juice colour and dry matter content during pulsed electric field enhanced expression of soft plant tissues. Journal of Food Engineering 79(2), 662–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pucihar, G., Kotnik, T., Teissie, J. and Miklavcic, D. (2007) Electropermeabilization of dense cell suspensions. European Biophysics Journal 36(3), 173–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Qin, B.L., Zhang, Q., Swanson, B.G. and Pedrow, P.D. (1994) Inactivation of microorganisms by different pulsed electric fields of different voltage waveforms. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transaction on Industry Applications 1(6), 1047–1057.Google Scholar
  103. Raso, J., Álvarez, I., Condón, S. and Sala-Trepat, F.J. (2000) Predicting inactivation of Salmonella senftenberg by pulsed electric fields. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 1, 21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rogov, I.A. and Gorbatov, A.V. (1974) Physical methods of foods processing. Pischevaja Promyshlennost, Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  105. Saguy, I., Kopelman, I.J., Mizrahi, S., (1978) Thermal kinetic degradation of betanin and betalamic acid. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 26(2), 360–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sale, A. and Hamilton, W. (1967) Effect of high electric fields on microorganisms. I. Killing of bacteria and yeast. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 148, 781–788.Google Scholar
  107. Salengke, S. and Sastry, S.K. (2005) Effect of ohmic pretreatment on the drying rate of grapes and adsorption isotherm of raisins. Drying Technology 23, 551–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sampedro, F., Rivas, A., Rodrigo, D., Martínez, A. and Rodrigo, M. (2007) Pulsed electric fields inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum in an orange juice–milk based beverage: effect of process parameters. Journal of Food Engineering 80(3), 931–938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Saravacos, G.D. and Raouzeos, G.S. (1984) Diffusivity of moisture during air drying of starch gels. In: B.M. McKenna (Ed.), Engineering and food. Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 381–394.Google Scholar
  110. Schwan, H.P. (1957) Electrical properties of tissue and cell suspensions. In: J.H. Lawrence and A. Tobias (Eds.), Advances in biological and medical physics. Academic Press, New York, pp. 147–209.Google Scholar
  111. Schwartzberg, H.G. and Chao, R.Y. (1982) Solute diffusivities in leaching processes. Food Technology 36, 73–86.Google Scholar
  112. Schwartzberg, H.G. (1997) Expression of fluid from biological solids. Separation and Purification Methods 26, 1–213.Google Scholar
  113. Shynkaryk, M.V. (2007) Influence de la perméabilisation membranaire par champ électrique sur la performance de séchage des végétaux. PhD thesis, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France.Google Scholar
  114. Shynkaryk, M.V., Lebovka, N.I. and Vorobiev, E. (2008) Pulsed electric fields and temperature effects on drying and rehydration of red beetroots. Drying Technology 26(6), 695–704.Google Scholar
  115. Tarek, M. (2005) Membrane electroporation: a molecular dynamics simulation. Biophysical Journal 88, 4045–4053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Teijo, W., Taiwo, K.A., Eshtiaghi, N. and Knorr, D. (2002) Comparison of pretreatment methods on water and solid diffusion kinetics of osmotically dehydrated mangos. Journal of Food Engineering 53, 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Teissié, J., Eynard, N., Gabriel, B. and Rols, M.P. (1999) Electropermeabilization of cell membranes. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 35(1), 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Teissie, J., Golzio, M. and Rols, M.P. (2005) Mechanisms of cell membrane electropermeabilisation: a minireview of our present (lack of?) knowledge. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1724, 270–280.Google Scholar
  119. Toepfl, S. (2006) Pulsed electric fields (PEF) for permeabilization of cell membranes in food- and bioprocessing – applications, process and equipment design and cost analysis. PhD thesis, Institut für Lebensmitteltechnologie und Lebensmittelchemie, Berlin.Google Scholar
  120. Toepfl, S. and Knorr, D. (2006) Pulsed electric fields as a pretreatment technique in drying processes. Stewart Postharvest Review 4(3), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Toepfl, S., Heinz, V. and Knorr, D. (2007) High intensity pulsed electric fields applied for food preservation. Chemical Engineering and Processing 46(6), 537–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Valic, B., Golzio, M., Pavlin, M., Schatz, A., Faurie, C., Gabriel, B., Teissié, J., Rols, M.-P. and Miklavcic, D. (2003) Effect of electric field induced transmembrane potential on spheroidal cells: theory and experiment. European Biophysics Journal 32, 519–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Van der Poel P.W., Schiweck, H. and Schwartz, T. (1998) Sugar technology beet and cane sugar manufacture, beet sugar development foundation. Denver, USA.Google Scholar
  124. Vorobiev E., Bazhal, M. and Bouzrara, H. (2002) Solid-liquid expression of biological materials enhanced by electroosmosis and pulsed electric field. Symposium on Emerging Technologies for the Food Industry. 11–13 March 2002, Madrid, Spain.Google Scholar
  125. Vorobiev, E., Lebovka, N., Praporscic, I. and Muravetchi, V. (2004) Stages of constant rate and constant pressure solid-liquid expression enhanced by pulsed electric field. Proceedings of 9 World Filtration Congress, New Orleans, USA, 18–24 April 2004, CD-Rom, (9 p).Google Scholar
  126. Vorobiev, E., Jemai, A.B., Bouzrara, H., Lebovka, N.I. and Bazhal, M.I. (2005) Pulsed electric field assisted extraction of juice from food plants. In: G. Barbosa-Canovas, M.S. Tapia and M.P. Cano (Eds.), Novel food processing technologies, CRC Press, New York, pp. 105–130.Google Scholar
  127. Vorobiev, E. and Lebovka, N.I. (2006) Extraction of intercellular components by pulsed electric fields. In: J. Raso and V. Heinz (Eds.), Pulsed electric field technology for the food industry. Fundamentals and applications. Springer, New York, pp. 153–194.Google Scholar
  128. Wang, W.C., and Sastry, S.K. (2002) Effects of moderate electrothermal treatments on juice yield from cellular tissue. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 3, 371–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Weaver, J.C. and Chizmadzhev, Y.A. (1996) Theory of electroporation: a review. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 41, 135–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wouters, P.C. and Smelt, J.P.P.M. (1997) Inactivation of microorganisms with pulsed electric fields: Potential for food preservation. Food Biotechnology 11(3), 193–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wouters, P.C., Dutreux, N., Smelt, J.P.P.M. and Lelieveld, H.L.M. (1999) Effects of pulsed electric fields on inactivation kinetics of Listeria innocua. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65, 5364–5371.Google Scholar
  132. Zagorulko, A. Ja. (1958) Technological parameters of beet desugaring process by the selective electroplosmolysis. In: New physical methods of foods processing, Izdatelstvo GosINTI, Moscow, pp 21–27 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  133. Zhang, Q., Monsalve-Gonzalez, A., Qin, B.L., Barbosa-Canovas, G.V. and Swanson, B.G. (1994) Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in apple juice by square-wave and exponential-decay pulsed electric fields. Journal of Food Process Engineering 17, 469–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Zhang, Z., Yang, S. and Liu, D. (1997) Mechanism and mathematical model of heat and mass transfer during convective drying of porous materials. Journal of Chemical Industry and Engineering 48(1), 52–59.Google Scholar
  135. Zhong, T. and Lima, M. (2003) The effect of ohmic heating on vacuum drying rate of sweet potato tissue, Bioresource Technology 87(3), 215–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Zimmermann, U., Pilwat, G. and Riemann, F. (1974) Dielectric breakdown of cell membranes. Biophysical Journal 14, 881–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Zimmermann, U. (1986) Electrical breakdown, electropermeabilization and electrofusion. Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology 105, 175–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department de Génie ChimiqueUniversité de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de Recherche de RoyallieuFrance

Personalised recommendations